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Background: Care giving for an elderly
parent is a universal developmental task, and in all societies is one of the
women tasks; its expectations are considered norms known as filial
responsibility. The aim of the study is to examine the possibility of
connections between the attitudes toward filial responsibility to elderly
parents and the attachment style in adulthood and age (generation) among women.
Methods: The research participants were 63 Jewish and Arab university students,
their mothers (N = 62) and their grandmothers (N = 63). Research instruments
consisted of a self- report questionnaire, which revealed background
characteristics, and measured attitudes toward filial responsibility, style of
adult attachment; self-esteem; sense of mastery and, family support. Results
revealed ethnicity differences as well as between-generations differences
regarding normative attitudes toward filial responsibility, which may indicate
a changing taking place in the Arab society’s approach concerning these
attitudes. An additional finding brought to light the cross-generational
differences in the relationship between the attachment style in adulthood and
the attitudes regarding filial responsibility. Conclusion: It seems that in
attitudes towards filial responsibility, Arab society is still traditional in
terms of its approach to the institutions of clan and family mostly among the
elderly Arab Muslims. All of the modern changes most likely have an effect on
adults’ sense of filial responsibility, on social norms, and on familial
The unsteady incompressible viscous flow of a Generalised Maxwell fluid between two coaxial rotating infinite parallel circular disks is studied by using the method of integral transforms. The motion of the fluid is created by the rotation of the upper and lower circular disks with different angular velocities. A fractional calculus approach is utilized to determine the velocity profile in series form in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The influence of the fractional as well as the material parameters on the velocity field is illustrated graphically.
This paper presents a study of visco-elastic flow of an
incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite parallel plates
in which the constitutive equation involves fractional order time derivative.
The solutions of field equations are being obtained for the motion of the said
fluid between two parallel plates where the lower plate starts to move with
steady velocity and the upper plate remains fixed in the first problem and the
upper plate oscillates with constant frequency and the other being at rest in
the second problem. The exact solutions for the velocity field are obtained by
using the Laplace transform and finite Fourier
Sine transform technique in terms of Mittag Leffler and generalised functions.
The analytical expression for the velocity fields are derived and the effect of
fractional parameters upon the velocity field is depicted graphically.