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It is important that pastes and creames for skin treatment have suitable rheological properties and ability to establish a good contact with the tissues while retaining their tightness. Thixotropy is desired for providing fluidity when agitated and a suitably degree of stiffening thereafter. This requires low shear resistance in the coating phase and microstructural reorganization when leaving the paste to rest. Following the principle of using only mineral components for skin treatment, use of expandable hydrophilic clay minerals should be considered. They sorb cations and positively charged organic molecules and are impermeable to fluids and gas under low pressure, hence providing oxygen-free micro-environment. They can balance pH and are excellent agents for cleaning skin.
Schopenhauer’s stance on suicide focuses on the possibility of achieving freedom from suffering through the denial of the individual will-to-life. Ultimately, Schopenhauer argues that suicide fails to achieve this freedom, primarily because it is an act of will that confirms, rather than denies, the will-to-life. Suicide, he argues, is a kind of contradiction in that it involves the individual will’s willfully seeking to exterminate itself as a way of escaping the wretchedness of willing. While Schopenhauer explicitly states that one possesses the individual right to commit suicide in order to attempt to obtain freedom from suffering, and even admits that he can understand why one would attempt to do so, he denies that there is any possibility that this freedom may be actualized. To take one’s life indicates a lack of awareness (or an unwillingness to become aware) of the futility of the individual will and the experience of the wholeness and totality of will-in-itself. One has the freedom to destroy oneself, but one’s freedom to free oneself from suffering is an illusion. If one concurs with Schopenhauer that suicide should be understood as a futile escape from the freedom of suffering, one cannot deny the brilliant insights of his argument. His is, one the one hand, a brilliant articulation of the function of suicide—placing the act squarely within what one would intuit as its primary purpose (freedom from suffering). On the other hand, given Schopenhauer’s philosophical framework, it negates that possibility and precludes consideration of any others.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of an emergency cesarean standard operating procedure (SOP) on the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) and to determine whether a shorter DDI improves neonatal outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis of emergency cesareans from 2004 (introduction of the new SOP) to 2009 in a Swiss Level 3 perinatal center. Primary endpoints were the DDI, the pathology-to-decision interval (PDI), the 5 year learning curve, and neonatal and maternal outcome. Results: In the emergency cesarean group (175 women and 188 infants), mean DDI decreased over the observation period from 15 to 9 minutes (mean 10 minutes 41 seconds), and mean PDI from 11 to 6 minutes (mean 8 minutes). Not only did the DDI not exceed 15 minutes in over 90% of cases during the 5 years, but it fell consistently below 10 minutes in the latter stages of the learning curve. Only 2/188 infants had an umbilical artery pH < 7.00 and 19/188 had an Apgar score <5 at 5 minutes. Maternal morbidity comprised three cases of superficial wound infection. Conclusion: Logistic prerequisites comprise a surgical capability directly within the delivery suite, a standby surgical and anesthetic team, a crash call system, and clear duty allocation. International guideline target times are readily achievable at no additional significant fetal or maternal cost.
Developing an algorithm requires expressing it in some (formal) language. The respective language is usually understood to be textual (conventional programming language) or partly graphical (design languages, and languages in programming environments for children). As writing and reading are capabilities not to be presumed from preschoolers, many educators claim that confronting such young kids with algorithmic concepts is beyond their abstraction capability. This paper reports on an experiment with kindergarten-groups requiring them to discover simple algorithms without resorting to reading and writing. It clearly showed that limited capabilities of abstractions are not a hurdle at all, if the problems are posed in a way corresponding to the limited experience base of the children, and if solutions are small enough to be kept in memory and allow expressing themselves in other forms than writing.
The game of life represents a spatial
environment of cells that live and die according to fixed rules of nature. In the basic variant of the game a cell’s behavior
can be described as reactive and deterministic since each cell’s transition
from an actual state to a subsequent state is straight-forwardly defined by
the rules. Furthermore, it can be shown that the alive cells’ spatial
occupation share of the environment decreases quickly and levels out at a
really small value (around 3%), virtually independent of the initial number of
alive cells. In this study we will show that this occupation share can be
strongly increased if alive cells become more active by making non-deterministic
sacrificial decisions according to their individual positions. Furthermore, we
applied signaling games in
combination with reinforcement learning to show that results can be even more improved if cells learn to signal for
navigating the behavior of neighbor cells. This result stresses the assumption
that individual behavior and local communication supports the optimization of
resourcing and constitute important steps in the evolution of creature and man.