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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3138 matches for " Roland Staud "
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Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia: pain in fibromyalgia syndrome
Roland Staud
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/ar1950
Abstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome that has been defined by widespread pain for more than 3 months and the presence of ≥11 out of 18 tender points [1]. In addition, most FM patients complain of disturbed sleep, emotional distress, and pronounced fatigue. FM represents the extreme end of the spectrum of musculoskeletal pain in the general population and is a chronic illness that disproportionably affects women (9:1 ratio of women to men affected). Like many other clinical syndromes, FM has no single specific feature but represents a symptom complex of self reported or elicited findings.Pain in FM is consistently felt in the musculature and is related to sensitization of central nervous system (CNS) pain pathways. Although not specific for FM, abnormal concentration of CNS neuropeptides, biogenic amines, and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been described [2-5]. There is a large body of evidence for a generalized lowering of pressure pain thresholds in FM patients [6-10], but the mechanical pain hypersensitivity (allodynia) of FM patients is not limited to tender points and appears to be widespread [10]. In addition, almost all studies of FM patients have shown abnormalities of pain sensitivity while using different methods of sensory testing.Although relevant for many clinical pain syndromes like FM, nociception alone cannot explain the human pain experience because it always undergoes modulation in the CNS by conscious and unconscious mental activity [11]. In addition, socio-cultural influences, beliefs or biases can strongly influence pain, particularly those related to cause, control, duration, outcome, and blame. These beliefs are frequently linked to negative emotions, like anger, fear, and depression [12]. Generally, pain has two emotional components, including the unpleasantness of the sensation (primary pain affect) as well as negative feelings like depression, anger and fear (secondary pain affect). This relation
Slow Temporal Summation of Pain for Assessment of Central Pain Sensitivity and Clinical Pain of Fibromyalgia Patients
Roland Staud, Elizabeth E. Weyl, Joseph L. Riley, Roger B. Fillingim
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089086
Abstract: Background In healthy individuals slow temporal summation of pain or wind-up (WU) can be evoked by repetitive heat-pulses at frequencies of ≥.33 Hz. Previous WU studies have used various stimulus frequencies and intensities to characterize central sensitization of human subjects including fibromyalgia (FM) patients. However, many trials demonstrated considerable WU-variability including zero WU or even wind-down (WD) at stimulus intensities sufficient for activating C-nociceptors. Additionally, few WU-protocols have controlled for contributions of individual pain sensitivity to WU-magnitude, which is critical for WU-comparisons. We hypothesized that integration of 3 different WU-trains into a single WU-response function (WU-RF) would not only control for individuals’ pain sensitivity but also better characterize their central pain responding including WU and WD. Methods 33 normal controls (NC) and 38 FM patients participated in a study of heat-WU. We systematically varied stimulus intensities of.4 Hz heat-pulse trains applied to the hands. Pain summation was calculated as difference scores of 1st and 5th heat-pulse ratings. WU-difference (WU-Δ) scores related to 3 heat-pulse trains (44°C, 46°C, 48°C) were integrated into WU-response functions whose slopes were used to assess group differences in central pain sensitivity. WU-aftersensations (WU-AS) at 15 s and 30 s were used to predict clinical FM pain intensity. Results WU-Δ scores linearly accelerated with increasing stimulus intensity (p<.001) in both groups of subjects (FM>NC) from WD to WU. Slope of WU-RF, which is representative of central pain sensitivity, was significantly steeper in FM patients than NC (p<.003). WU-AS predicted clinical FM pain intensity (Pearson’s r = .4; p<.04). Conclusions Compared to single WU series, WU-RFs integrate individuals’ pain sensitivity as well as WU and WD. Slope of WU-RFs was significantly different between FM patients and NC. Therefore WU-RF may be useful for assessing central sensitization of chronic pain patients in research and clinical practice.
A computational model for sex-specific genetic architecture of complex traits in humans: Implications for mapping pain sensitivity
Chenguang Wang, Yun Cheng, Tian Liu, Qin Li, Roger B Fillingim, Margaret R Wallace, Roland Staud, Lee Kaplan, Rongling Wu
Molecular Pain , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-4-13
Abstract: Differences in males and females (sexual dimorphism) is ubiquitous in many biological aspects [1-3]. In humans, sexually dimorphic traits include those from morphological shapes and body size to brain development to disease susceptibility [4,5]. Substantial differences are also observed in sensitivities to pain and pain-killing drugs, and susceptibility to developing chronic pain between men and women [6-8]. All these sex-specific differences are due to varying expression of genes on the X/Y chromosome and autosomes, thought to result from differences in cellular and hormonal environments between the two sexes [9]. A growing body of research has been conducted to elucidate the genetic control of sexual dimorphism in various complex phenotypes by gene mapping approaches [4,5,10,11]. Despite these efforts, however, little is known about the genetic architecture underlying sex-related variation in a quantitative trait.Since sex is easily determined, the effects of sex on morphological, developmental and pathological traits can be directly observed. However, characterizing the impacts of sex on the genetic architecture of these traits has been challenged by a lack of powerful statistical approaches. The motivation of this article is to develop a statistical and computational model that can systematically search for sex-specific genes contributing to quantitative variation and formulate testable hypotheses regarding the interplay between sexes and gene expression. Our model is principally different from those used in many previous studies that are aimed to detect sex-specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) based on linkage or linkage disequilibrium analysis [2,4,5,12,13]. Our model will be founded on the statistical framework constructed by Liu et al. [14] to detect the effects and diversity of haplotypes constructed by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are genotyped at candidate genes or genome-wide [15]. Our model has been generalized to allow the test of sex
Modeling genetic imprinting effects of DNA sequences with multilocus polymorphism data
Sheron Wen, Chenguang Wang, Arthur Berg, Yao Li, Myron M Chang, Roger B Fillingim, Margaret R Wallace, Roland Staud, Lee Kaplan, Rongling Wu
Algorithms for Molecular Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7188-4-11
Abstract: In diploid organisms, there are two copies at every autosomal gene, one inherited from the maternal parent and the other from the paternal parent. Both copies are expressed to affect a trait for a majority of these genes. Yet, there is also a small subset of genes for which one copy from a particular parent is turned off. These genes, whose expression depends on the parent of origin due to the epigenetic or imprinted mark of one copy in either the egg or the sperm, have been thought to play an important role in complex diseases and traits, although imprinted expression can also vary between tissues, developmental stages, and species [1]. Anomalies derived from imprinted genes are often manifested as developmental and neurological disorders during early development and as cancer later in life [2-5].The mechanisms for genetic imprinting are still incompletely known, but they involve epigenetic modifications that are erased and then reset during the formation of eggs and sperm. Recent research shows that the parent-of-origin dependent expression of imprinted genes is related with environmental interactions with the genome [5]. The phenomenon of genomic imprinting is explained from an evolutionary perspective [6]. Genomic imprinting evolves in mammals with the advent of live birth through a parental battle between the sexes to control the maternal expenditure of resources to the offspring [7].Paternally expressed imprinted genes tend to promote offspring growth by extracting nutrients from the mother during pregnancy while it is suppressed by those genes that are maternally expressed. This genetic battle between the paternal and maternal parents appears to continue even after birth [8,9].The genetic mechanisms for imprinting can be made clear if the genomic distribution of imprinted genes and their actions and interactions are studied. Genetic mapping with molecular markers and linkage maps has been used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that show parent-of-origin e
Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study
Kimberly T Sibille, Taimour Langaee, Ben Burkley, Yan Gong, Toni L Glover, Chris King, Joseph L Riley, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roland Staud, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-12
Abstract: The relationship between chronic pain, stress, and TL was analyzed in 36 ethnically diverse, older adults, half of whom reported no chronic pain and the other half had chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Subjects completed a physical exam, radiographs, health history, and psychosocial questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Four groups were identified characterized by pain status and the Perceived Stress Scale scores: 1) no pain/low stress, 2) no pain/high stress, chronic pain/low stress, and 4) chronic pain/high stress. TL differed between the pain/stress groups (p = 0.01), controlling for relevant covariates. Specifically, the chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter TL compared to the no pain/low stress group. Age was negatively correlated with TL, particularly in the chronic pain/high stress group (p = 0.03).Although preliminary in nature and based on a modest sample size, these findings indicate that cellular aging may be more pronounced in older adults experiencing high levels of perceived stress and chronic pain.A recent Institute of Medicine report documents the public health consequences of chronic pain in America with estimates of 116 million adults affected and costs of $635 billion annually [1]. One of the challenges illuminated in the report is the difficulty in identifying specific pathophysiological targets due to significant variability in the experience of chronic pain. Consequently, biological markers reflecting the physiological burden of chronic pain on an individual system would offer significant clinical and scientific utility.Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is a measure of cellular aging and is associated with age-related disease onset, chronic health conditions, psychosocial stress, and mortality [2-5]. Importantly, recent findings indicate a direct relationship between telomeres and mitochondria, connecting for the first time two major theories of ag
Wardrobe Malfunctions and the Measurement of Internet Behaviour  [PDF]
Roland Pfister
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23042
Abstract: The wardrobe malfunction – an unanticipated exposure of bodily parts in the public – has become a prevailing issue in concerts, shows and other celebrity events that is reliably reported by the media. The internet as the fastest source for celebrity gossip allows measuring the impact of such wardrobe malfunctions on the public in-terest in a celebrity. This measurement in turn allows conclusions about intention, motivation, and internet be-haviour of a wide variety of internet users. The present study exemplifies the use of an innovative non-reactive measure of active interest – the Search Volume Index – to assess the impact of a variety of internet-related phe-nomena, including wardrobe malfunctions. Results indicate that interest in a celebrity increases immediately af-ter such an event and stays at a high level for about three weeks (the wardrobe plateau). This special form of ce-lebrity gossip thus meets a constant interest of a substantial proportion of internet users.
Flow and Ductility of Smectite Clay for Skin Treatment  [PDF]
Roland Pusch
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.42010

It is important that pastes and creames for skin treatment have suitable rheological properties and ability to establish a good contact with the tissues while retaining their tightness. Thixotropy is desired for providing fluidity when agitated and a suitably degree of stiffening thereafter. This requires low shear resistance in the coating phase and microstructural reorganization when leaving the paste to rest. Following the principle of using only mineral components for skin treatment, use of expandable hydrophilic clay minerals should be considered. They sorb cations and positively charged organic molecules and are impermeable to fluids and gas under low pressure, hence providing oxygen-free micro-environment. They can balance pH and are excellent agents for cleaning skin.

Purvalanol A, Olomoucine II and Roscovitine Inhibit ABCB1 Transporter and Synergistically Potentiate Cytotoxic Effects of Daunorubicin In Vitro
Daniela Cihalova, Jakub Hofman, Martina Ceckova, Frantisek Staud
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083467
Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) have high potential applicability in anticancer therapy, but various aspects of their pharmacokinetics, especially their interactions with drug efflux transporters, have not yet been evaluated in detail. Thus, we investigated interactions of five CDKi (purvalanol A, olomoucine II, roscovitine, flavopiridol and SNS-032) with the ABCB1 transporter. Four of the compounds inhibited efflux of two ABCB1 substrates, Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells: Olomoucine II most strongly, followed by roscovitine, purvalanol A, and flavopiridol. SNS-032 inhibited ABCB1-mediated efflux of Hoechst 33342 but not daunorubicin. In addition, purvalanol A, SNS-032 and flavopiridol lowered the stimulated ATPase activity in ABCB1 membrane preparations, while olomoucine II and roscovitine not only inhibited the stimulated ATPase but also significantly activated the basal ABCB1 ATPase, suggesting that these two CDKi are ABCB1 substrates. We further revealed that the strongest ABCB1 inhibitors (purvalanol A, olomoucine II and roscovitine) synergistically potentiate the antiproliferative effect of daunorubicin, a commonly used anticancer drug and ABCB1 substrate, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells as well as in human carcinoma HCT-8 and HepG2 cells. We suggest that this pronounced synergism is at least partly caused by (i) CDKi-mediated inhibition of ABCB1 transporter leading to increased intracellular retention of daunorubicin and (ii) native cytotoxic activity of the CDKi. Our results indicate that co-administration of the tested CDKi with anticancer drugs that are ABCB1 substrates may allow significant dose reduction in the treatment of ABCB1-expressing tumors.
The Post-Modern Mind. A Reconsideration of John Ashbery’s “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975) from the Viewpoint of an Interdisciplinary History of Ideas  [PDF]
Roland Benedikter, Judith Hilber
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper gives a short description of basic features of the dominating mindset in the Western world between the 1970s and today, often called “post-modern”, through a re-reading of John Ashbery’s poem “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975). In doing so, it applies the viewpoint of an interdisciplinary history of ideas. Since collective mindsets have become the most important contextual political factors, the implications are multiple.
Suicide and Freedom from Suffering in Schopenhauer’s “Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung”  [PDF]
Christopher Roland Trogan
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31002

Schopenhauer’s stance on suicide focuses on the possibility of achieving freedom from suffering through the denial of the individual will-to-life. Ultimately, Schopenhauer argues that suicide fails to achieve this freedom, primarily because it is an act of will that confirms, rather than denies, the will-to-life. Suicide, he argues, is a kind of contradiction in that it involves the individual will’s willfully seeking to exterminate itself as a way of escaping the wretchedness of willing. While Schopenhauer explicitly states that one possesses the individual right to commit suicide in order to attempt to obtain freedom from suffering, and even admits that he can understand why one would attempt to do so, he denies that there is any possibility that this freedom may be actualized. To take one’s life indicates a lack of awareness (or an unwillingness to become aware) of the futility of the individual will and the experience of the wholeness and totality of will-in-itself. One has the freedom to destroy oneself, but one’s freedom to free oneself from suffering is an illusion. If one concurs with Schopenhauer that suicide should be understood as a futile escape from the freedom of suffering, one cannot deny the brilliant insights of his argument. His is, one the one hand, a brilliant articulation of the function of suicide—placing the act squarely within what one would intuit as its primary purpose (freedom from suffering). On the other hand, given Schopenhauer’s philosophical framework, it negates that possibility and precludes consideration of any others.

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