Abstract:
Background: A special pillow was designed to redistribute mechanical stress during sleeping in order to slow down the formation of facial skin wrinkles. Objective: To investigate whether sleeping on a specially designed pillow reduces facial skin wrinkles. Participants and Methods: A 28-day pilot study was carried out in which fifteen healthy female volunteers aged 23 - 55 years (mean age 35. 6 ± 8.5) slept on an antiwrinkle pillow. Evaluation of facial wrinkles was conducted before commencing the study (T_{0}), following at 14 days (T_{14}), and at 28 days (T_{28}) when the study ended. Wrinkle density was assessed by computerized analysis of 2D images of participants’ faces. Results: A statistically significant decrease in wrinkle density was detected while smiling around both eyes, around the right eye in a relaxed facial expression, on average in all observed facial areas, around the left periorbital area in participants who predominantly slept on their left side of the body, but not on the frontal area. Limitations: A 3D camera could be used to better visualize and analyze wrinkle density. Conclusions: Sleeping on the specially designed pillow reduces facial wrinkles.

Abstract:
In the present study the expression of ten candidate reference genes (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt1, Ppib, Rn18s, Rplp0, Tbcc and Utp6c) was measured in 131 liver and 97 adrenal gland samples taken from three mouse strains (C57BL/6JOlaHsd, 129Pas plus C57BL/6J and Crem KO on 129Pas plus C57BL/6J background) every 4 h in a 24 h period. Expression stability was evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder programs. Differences in ranking of the most stable reference genes were observed both between individual mouse strains as well as between tissues within each mouse strain. We show that selection of reference gene (Actb) that is often used for analyses in individual mouse strains leads to errors if used for normalization when different mouse strains are compared. We identified alternative reference genes that are stable in these comparisons.Genetic background and circadian time influence the expression stability of reference genes. Differences between mouse strains and tissues should be taken into consideration to avoid false interpretations. We show that the use of a single reference gene can lead to false biological conclusions. This manuscript provides a useful reference point for researchers that search for stable reference genes in the field of circadian biology.Circadian rhythms are oscillations in behaviour and physiology whose function it is to anticipate environmental changes associated with the solar day [1]. At the molecular level, they consist of a network of transcriptional and translational feedback loops that drive the 24 h expression of core clock components [2,3]. Circadian control is required for healthy life, thus disruption of circadian cycle leads to pathologies such as cancer, obesity, lipid disorders and type 2-diabetes [4-6]. Some of these abnormalities were discovered in mouse models lacking core clock genes Clock and Bmal1 [7-9]. Phenotypes resulting from mutations of clock genes are highly affected by genetic background [4,10,11]. Yoshiki defined g

Abstract:
The essential role of the Crem gene in normal sperm development is widely accepted and is confirmed by azoospermia in male mice lacking the Crem gene. The exact number of genes affected by Crem absence is not known, however a large difference has been observed recently between the estimated number of differentially expressed genes found in Crem knock-out (KO) mice compared to the number of gene loci bound by CREM. We therefore re-examined global gene expression in male mice lacking the Crem gene using whole genome transcriptome analysis with Affymetrix microarrays and compared the lists of differentially expressed genes from Crem？/？ mice to a dataset of genes where binding of CREM was determined by Chip-seq. We determined the global effect of CREM on spermatogenesis as well as distinguished between primary and secondary effects of the CREM absence. We demonstrated that the absence of Crem deregulates over 4700 genes in KO testis. Among them are 101 genes associated with spermatogenesis 41 of which are bound by CREM and are deregulated in Crem KO testis. Absence of several of these genes in mouse models has proven their importance for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. Our study showed that the absence of Crem plays a more important role on different aspects of spermatogenesis as estimated previously, with its impact ranging from apoptosis induction to deregulation of major circadian clock genes, steroidogenesis and the cell-cell junction dynamics. Several new genes important for normal spermatogenesis and fertility are down-regulated in KO testis and are therefore possible novel targets of CREM.

Abstract:
We study the system of two magnetic impurities described by a two-impurity Kondo model where only the first impurity couples directly to the conduction band, while the second impurity interacts with the first through Heisenberg exchange coupling in a "side-coupled" configuration. We consider various choices of the impurity spins (S_1S_2) and we contrast the regimes where the inter-impurity exchange coupling J is either lower or higher than the Kondo temperature T_K^(0) of the first impurity in the absence of the second. This model is a high-spin generalization of the two-impurity model for side-coupled double quantum dots which corresponds to the simplest S_1=S_2=1/2 case, where the moments are Kondo screened successively in two stages for J= S_1. For S_1 >= 1, the second Kondo temperature T_K^(2) is not exponentially reduced, as for S_1 = 1/2, but is approximately a power-law function of the coupling J. Furthermore, for S_1 >=1 1 all three scales (T_K^(0), J, T_K^(2)) explicitly appear in the temperature-dependence of the thermodynamic properties. For S_1 > S_2, there is no second stage of screening for JT_K^(0) the Kondo screening of the effective spin S_1-S_2 is found.

Abstract:
The ground-state energy of a quantum impurity model can be calculated using the numerical renormalization group with a modified discretization scheme, with sufficient accuracy to reliably extract physical information about the system. The approach is applied to study binding of magnetic adsorbates modeled by the Anderson-Newns model for chemisorption on metal surfaces. The correlation energy is largest in the valence-fluctuation regime; in the strong-coupling (Kondo) regime the Kondo-singlet formation energy is found to be only a minor contribution. As an application of the method to more difficult surface-science problems, we study the binding energy of a magnetic atom adsorbed near a step edge on a surface with a strongly modulated surface-state electron density. The zero-temperature magnetic susceptibility is determined from the field dependence of the binding energy, thereby providing an independent result for the Kondo temperature TK, which agrees very well with the TK extracted from a thermodynamic calculation.

Abstract:
The convergence to the self-consistency in the dynamical-mean-field-theory (DMFT) calculations for models of correlated electron systems can be significantly accelerated by using an appropriate mixing of hybridization functions which are used as the input to the impurity solver. It is shown that the techniques and the past experience with the mixing of input charge densities in the density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations are also effective in DMFT. As an example, the increase of the computational requirements near the Mott metal-insulator transition in the Hubbard model due to critical slowing down can be strongly reduced by using the modified Broyden's method to numerically solve the non-linear self-consistency equation. Speed-up factors as high as 3 were observed in practical calculations even for this relatively well behaved problem. Furthermore, the convergence can be achieved in difficult cases where simple linear mixing is either not effective or even leads to divergence. Unstable and metastable solutions can also be obtained. We also determine the linear response of the system with respect to the variations of the hybridization function, which is related to the propagation of the information between the different energy scales during the iteration.

Abstract:
The problem of the logarithmic discretization of an arbitrary positive function (such as the density of states) is studied in general terms. Logarithmic discretization has arbitrary high resolution around some chosen point (such as Fermi level) and it finds application, for example, in the numerical renormalization group (NRG) approach to quantum impurity problems (Kondo model), where the continuum of the conduction band states needs to be reduced to a finite number of levels with good sampling near the Fermi level. The discretization schemes under discussion are required to reproduce the original function after averaging over different interleaved discretization meshes, thus systematic deviations which appear in the conventional logarithmic discretization are eliminated. An improved scheme is proposed in which the discretization-mesh points themselves are determined in an adaptive way; they are denser in the regions where the function has higher values. Such schemes help in reducing the residual numeric artefacts in NRG calculations in situations where the density of states approaches zero over extended intervals. A reference implementation of the solver for the differential equations which determine the full set of discretization coefficients is also described.

Abstract:
It is shown that the Hamiltonian for a quantum magnetic impurity on the surface of a topological insulator can be mapped to the conventional pseudo-gap Anderson impurity model, albeit with the combinations of continuum states which hybridize with the impurity having more complex structure in the reciprocal and spin space. If the Fermi level is away from the Dirac point, the impurity is predicted to be fully screened at low enough temperatures, i.e., there are no residual degrees of freedom.

Abstract:
We study the zero-bias conductance through the system of two quantum dots, one of which is embedded directly between the source and drain electrodes, while the second dot is side-coupled to the first one through a tunneling junction. Modeling the system using the two-impurity Anderson model, we compute the temperature-dependence of the conductance in various parameter regimes using the numerical renormalization group. We consider the non-interacting case, where we study the extent of the departure from the conventional Fano resonance line shape at finite temperatures, and the case where the embedded and/or the side-coupled quantum dot is interacting, where we study the consequences of the coexistence of the Kondo and Fano effects. If the side-coupled dot is very weakly interacting, the occupancy changes by two when the on-site energy crosses the Fermi level and a Fano-resonance-like shape is observed. If the interaction on the side-coupled dot is sizeable, the occupancy changes only by one and a very different line-shape results, which is strongly and characteristically temperature dependent. These results suggest an intriguing alternative interpretation of the recent experimental results study of the transport properties of the side-coupled double quantum dot [Sasaki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 266806 (2009)]: the observed Fano-like conductance anti-resonance may, in fact, result from the two-stage Kondo effect in the regime where the experimental temperature is between the higher and the lower Kondo temperature.