Abstract:
We propose to use a Nomarski imaging interferometer to measure the out-of-plane displacement field of MEMS. It is shown that the measured optical phase arises both from height and slope gradients. Using four integrating buckets a more efficient approach to unwrap the measured phase is presented, thus making the method well suited for highly curved objects. Slope and height effects are then decoupled by expanding the displacement field on a functions basis, and the inverse transformation is applied to get a displacement field from a measure of the optical phase map change with a mechanical loading. A measurement reproducibility of about 10 pm is achieved, and typical results are shown on a microcantilever under thermal actuation, thereby proving the ability of such a set-up to provide a reliable full-field kinematic measurement without surface modification.

Abstract:
Let $m$ be a natural number, and let $\mathcal{Q}$ be a set containing at least $\exp(C m)$ primes. We show that one can find infinitely many strings of $m$ consecutive primes each of which has some $q\in\mathcal{Q}$ as a primitive root, all lying in an interval of length $O_{\mathcal{Q}}(\exp(C'm))$. This is a bounded gaps variant of a theorem of Gupta and Ram Murty. We also prove a result on an elliptic analogue of Artin's conjecture. Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve with an irrational $2$-torsion point. Assume GRH. Then for every $m$, there are infinitely many strings of $m$ consecutive primes $p$ for which $E(\mathbb{F}_p)$ is cyclic, all lying an interval of length $O_E(\exp(C'' m))$. If $E$ has CM, then the GRH assumption can be removed. Here $C$, $C'$, and $C''$ are absolute constants.

Abstract:
Let $\mathcal{R}$ be a finite set of integers satisfying appropriate local conditions. We show the existence of long clusters of primes $p$ in bounded length intervals with $p-b$ squarefree for all $b \in \mathcal{R}$. Moreover, we can enforce that the primes $p$ in our cluster satisfy any one of the following conditions: (1) $p$ lies in a short interval $[N, N+N^{\frac{7}{12}+\epsilon}]$, (2) $p$ belongs to a given inhomogeneous Beatty sequence, (3) with $c \in (\frac{8}{9},1)$ fixed, $p^c$ lies in a prescribed interval mod $1$ of length $p^{-1+c+\epsilon}$.

Abstract:
Forest biomass has great potential as a biofuel feedstock, but information on forest owner perceptions of using forest biomass to produce bioenergy is lacking. In this case study, we surveyed 3500 small to medium private forest landowners in southwestern Louisiana to better understand their attitudes and perceptions towards harvesting forest biomass for bioenergy production. Results indicate that landowners: 1) were positive about utilizing biomass for bioenergy, 2) believe viable biomass conversion technologies exist, 3) had antagonistic or neutral attitudes towards some technological, economic, and policy issues associated with using forest biomass for bioenergy due in part to lack of information or knowledge, and 4) felt biomass is a low-value product compared to traditional products. Landowners’ perceptions of participating in bio-based activities and markets vary among age and ownership size, and 51% of forest landowners were willing to participate in management activities specifically geared for bioenergy production.

Abstract:
Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) or Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)), are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust) over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known) and within patients (where it generally is known). A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how ‘realistic’ (or otherwise) it is.

Abstract:
We use a novel, microfluidics-based technique to deconstruct the classical wound healing scratch assay, decoupling the contribution of free space and cell damage on the migratory dynamics of an epithelial sheet. This method utilizes multiple laminar flows to selectively cleave cells enzymatically, and allows us to present a ‘damage free’ denudation. We therefore isolate the influence of free space on the onset of sheet migration. First, we observe denudation directly to measure the retraction in the cell sheet that occurs after cell-cell contact is broken, providing direct and quantitative evidence of strong tension within the sheet. We further probe the mechanical integrity of the sheet without denudation, instead using laminar flows to selectively inactivate actomyosin contractility. In both cases, retraction is observed over many cell diameters. We then extend this method and complement the enzymatic denudation with analogies to wounding, including gradients in signals associated with cell damage, such as reactive oxygen species, suspected to play a role in the induction of movement after wounding. These chemical factors are evaluated in combination with the enzymatic cleavage of cells, and are assessed for their influence on the collective migration of a non-abrasively denuded epithelial sheet. We conclude that free space alone is sufficient to induce movement, but this movement is predominantly limited to the leading edge, leaving cells further from the edge less able to move towards the wound. Surprisingly, when coupled with a gradient in ROS to simulate the chemical effects of abrasion however, motility was not restored, but further inhibited.

Abstract:
in this paper we investigate the flow of wind over a relatively complex topography at the lower portion of the atmospheric boundary-layer, by using the well known general purpose cfd package ansys-cfx-11. the work was motivated by the difficulty in choosing the optimal locations for turbines (micrositing) in regions of good energy potential, but with complex topography. the simulations were compared with data from landmark experiment at askervein hill -scotland, in 1983. the resulting simulations also were compared favorably with the results of another package for wind simulation.

Background: Case-control studies have been used extensively in determining the aetiology of rare diseases. However, case-control studies often suffer from participation bias in the control group, resulting in biased odds ratios that cause problems with interpretation. Participation bias can be hard to detect and is often ignored. Methods: Population data can be used in place of the possibly biased control group, to investigate whether participation bias may have affected the results in previous studies, or in place of controls in future studies. We demonstrate this approach by reanalysing and comparing the results of two case-control studies: Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire children and stroke in Indian adults. Findings: Using population data to represent the control groups reduced the width of the confidence intervals given in the original studies and confirmed the findings for the two diabetes risk factors used; caesarean birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12 (1.53, 2.95) compared with 1.84 (1.09, 3.10)) and amniocentesis (OR = 3.38 (2.09, 5.47) compared with 3.85 (1.34, 11.04)). The three stroke risk factors investigated were found to have increased odds ratios when using population data; hypertension (OR = 5.645 (5.639, 5.650) compared with 3.807 (2.114, 6.856)), diabetes (OR = 12.212 (12.200, 12.224) compared with 3.473 (1.757, 6.866)) and smoking (OR = 5.701 (5.696, 5.707) compared with 2.242 (1.255, 4.005)). Interpretation: Participation bias can greatly affect the results of a study and cause some potential risk factors to be over-or underestimated. This approach allows previous studies to be investigated for participation bias and presents an alternative to a control group in future studies, while improving precision.