Abstract:
objective: to evaluate the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in patients with and without scleroderma; to verify a possible association with disease severity; to assess the relationship of intima-media thickness with known cardiovascular risk factors. methods: in a case-control study, were selected 30 patients with scleroderma and 30 without the disease and matched according to age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. the age ranged from 17 to 79 years (mean 49). all patients underwent carotid artery evaluation by high-resolution vascular doppler in order to measure the intima-medial thickness of the carotid 2 cm from the bifurcation. in all the analysis was considered the greatest value of intima-media thickness in right and left carotid arteries. results:the sample consisted of 30 patients, being 29 (96.67%) women and one man (3.3%). in this sample, 11/30 (36.67%) had high blood pressure, 5/30 (16.67%) had diabetes mellitus, 6/30 (20%) had dyslipidemia and 2/30 (6.67%) were smokers. comparing the measure of the increased risk (maximum intima-media thickness between the left and right side), was obtained an average of 0.77 mm for group scleroderma and a value of 0.70 mm for the control group (p = 0.21). in assessing the association between disease severity and carotid intima-media thickness, was found no significant association (p= 0.925). conclusion: was found a slight increase in intima-medial thickness of common carotid artery in patients with scleroderma but without statistical significance. regarding the severity of the disease and intima-medial thickness of common carotid artery, there was no significant difference.

Abstract:
A metacogni o vem sendo abordada em diferentes áreas, e a clara conceitua o deste termo se faz necessária para melhor aplica o em recursos de aprendizagem. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal fazer uma revis o n o-sistemática sobre o tema metacogni o devido à dificuldade encontrada para a defini o deste construto. Determinadas bases de dados foram pesquisadas, como PubMed, Scielo, PsychInfo, Web of Science e Lilacs, no período de 2001 a 2007. Os descritores utilizados na pesquisa foram: metacogni o, aprendizagem, metacompreens o, estratégias de aprendizagem, metamemória, fen meno ponta-da-língua e meta-aprendizagem. Os artigos selecionados foram agrupados por defini o de termos. A partir disto, foi elaborada uma descri o da metacogni o e suas fun es, estratégias e processos. O estreito vínculo com a aprendizagem é uma importante ferramenta para otimiza o do estudo e resolu o de problemas. Os esclarecimentos obtidos neste estudo sugerem quest es para futuras pesquisas no ambito educacional, para aprimorar a rela o ensino/aprendizagem.

Abstract:
We study some natural sets arising in the theory of ordinary differential equations in one variable from the point of view of descriptive set theory and in particular classify them within the Borel hierarchy. We prove that the set of Cauchy problems for ordinary differential equations which have a unique solution is $\Pi^0_2$-complete and that the set of Cauchy problems which locally have a unique solution is $\Sigma^0_3$-complete. We prove that the set of Cauchy problems which have a global solution is $\Sigma^0_4$-complete and that the set of ordinary differential equation which have a global solution for every initial condition is $\Pi^0_3$-complete. We prove that the set of Cauchy problems for which both uniqueness and globality hold is $\Pi^0_2$-complete.

Abstract:
Given an equivalence class $[A]$ in the measure algebra of the Cantor space, let $\hat\Phi([A])$ be the set of points having density 1 in $A$. Sets of the form $\hat\Phi([A])$ are called $\mathcal{T}$-regular. We establish several results about $\mathcal{T}$-regular sets. Among these, we show that $\mathcal{T}$-regular sets can have any complexity within $\Pi^{0}_{3}$ (=$ \mathbf{F}_{\sigma\delta}$), that is for any $\Pi^{0}_{3}$ subset $X$ of the Cantor space there is a $\mathcal{T}$-regular set that has the same topological complexity of $X$. Nevertheless, the generic $\mathcal{T}$-regular set is $\Pi^{0}_{3}$-complete, meaning that the classes $[A]$ such that $\hat{\Phi}([A]) $ is $\Pi^{0}_{3}$-complete form a comeagre subset of the measure algebra. We prove that this set is also dense in the sense of forcing, as $\mathcal{T}$-regular sets with empty interior turn out to be $\Pi^{0}_{3}$-complete. Finally we show that the generic $[A]$ does not contain a $\Delta^{0}_{2}$ set, i.e., a set which is in $\mathbf{F}_\sigma\cap\mathbf{G}_\delta$

Abstract:
the present paper initiates a serial, in which the authors propose revising the neotropical species of simuliidae. in this first contribution, a bibliographical survey, and redescriptions of the male, female, pupa and larva of s. (e.) orbitale lutz, 1910, are presented; a full description of s. (e.) pintoi n. sp. based on male, female, pupa and larva is given; s. nigrimanum macq. 1837 is considered a sp. inquirendae.

Abstract:
a new system for wing venation of simuliidae is proposed. lutzsimulium cruzi n., gen. and n. sp. is described based on a single female and its pupal skin.

Abstract:
the influence of tidal phase on bacteria abundance in surface waters was studied in five stations along the perequê tidal creek (paraná state, brazil), at spring and neap low and high tides in july 1999. the stations were located from the mouth (st.1) to the creek's head (st. 5). the following parameters were analyzed: salinity, temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen, total carbon dioxide, seston, particulate organic matter, pluviosity, chlorophyll "a", total heterotrophic bacteria, bacterial biomass, cultivable heterotrophic aerobic halophilic and halophobic bacteria, total coliforms and escherichia coli. the results showed that the highest values of salinity, ph and dissolved oxygen at stations 1 to 4 were registered during the spring high tide. the amount of total heterotrophic bacteria was directly proportional to seston and chlorophyl values at stations 2 and 3 during low tide of july 28, and at station 5 during high tide of the same day. the values of cultivable heterotrophic aerobic halophilic and halophobic bacteria, total coliforms and e. coli, were directly correlated with particulate organic matter and pluviosity. the largest of these values were registered during the neap low tide of july 6. this period was characterized by high precipitation, which may have influenced the bacterial number variation. during the neap high tide and, sporadically, during the neap and spring low tide, the lowest values of total heterotrophic bacteria and bacterial biomass were registered. the results showed great influence of the tide on the bacteria at stations 1 to 4, but not at station 5.

Abstract:
characteristics of the evolution of pregnancy in obese women were studied for their effect on newborn infants. two control groups were observed - one of normal weight pregnant women, one of obese. the variables selected were: the socio-economic status of the family and the mother's age, height, arm circunference, prepregancy weight, total number of pregnancies, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, obstetric complications, birth weight, and fetal vitality. results showed that pregnancy in obese women differs from that in normal weight women and that they show a larger incidence of obstetric complications. children of obese mothers had a higher mortality rate principally in the perinatal period; moreover, there was also a higher rate of prematurity and a higher proportion of overweight babies among obese mothers. as a result, the distribution of the curve of the birth weight of infants of obese morthers was higher than that of infants of normal weight mothers. the conclusion reached was that whenever a pregnant obese woman reduced foot intake, with resultant insufficient weight gain, intrauterine growth was affected. thus, it follows that pregnancy is not the best time for the obese mother to lose weight; for this reason, it is important that she receive adequate guidance in regard to diet. obesity, therefore, is a factor contributing to high-risk pregnancy which can affect both mother and child.

Abstract:
The influence of tidal phase on bacteria abundance in surface waters was studied in five stations along the Perequê tidal creek (Paraná State, Brazil), at spring and neap low and high tides in July 1999. The stations were located from the mouth (St.1) to the creek's head (St. 5). The following parameters were analyzed: salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total carbon dioxide, seston, particulate organic matter, pluviosity, chlorophyll "a", total heterotrophic bacteria, bacterial biomass, cultivable heterotrophic aerobic halophilic and halophobic bacteria, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the highest values of salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen at stations 1 to 4 were registered during the spring high tide. The amount of total heterotrophic bacteria was directly proportional to seston and chlorophyl values at stations 2 and 3 during low tide of July 28, and at station 5 during high tide of the same day. The values of cultivable heterotrophic aerobic halophilic and halophobic bacteria, total coliforms and E. coli, were directly correlated with particulate organic matter and pluviosity. The largest of these values were registered during the neap low tide of July 6. This period was characterized by high precipitation, which may have influenced the bacterial number variation. During the neap high tide and, sporadically, during the neap and spring low tide, the lowest values of total heterotrophic bacteria and bacterial biomass were registered. The results showed great influence of the tide on the bacteria at stations 1 to 4, but not at station 5.

Abstract:
For the first time, we present and discuss EUV radiances of the solar transition region (TR) and corona obtained during a solar cycle. The measurements were obtained with the SOHO/coronal diagnostic spectrometer (CDS) during the period from 1996 to 2010. We find that limb-brightening significantly affects any characterisation of the solar radiances. We present the limb-brightening function for the main lines and find that it does not change measurably during the cycle. We confirm earlier findings that the radiance histogram of the cooler lines have a well defined, log-normal quiet-Sun component, although our results differ from previous ones. The width of the lowest-radiance log-normal distribution is constant along the cycle. Both the analysis of the centre-to-limb variation and of the radiance statistical distribution point to a constant QS emission along solar cycle 23. Lines formed above 1 MK are dramatically affected by the presence of active regions, and indeed, no "quiet Sun" region can be defined during periods of maximum activity. Much of the irradiance variability in lines formed below 1.5 MK is due to a change in the emitting area. For hotter lines, the emitting area saturates to almost 100% of full solar disk at the maximum of activity, while simultaneously the emission due to active regions increases by more than an order of magnitude. We show that structures around active regions, sometimes referred to as dark halos or dark canopies, are common and discuss their similarities and differences with coronal holes. In particular, we show how they are well visible in TR lines, contrary to coronal holes.