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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26339 matches for " Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho "
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Fecal Microbial Diversity in Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves as Described by Pyrosequencing of Metagenomic 16S rDNA. Associations of Faecalibacterium Species with Health and Growth
Georgios Oikonomou, Andre Gustavo Vieira Teixeira, Carla Foditsch, Marcela Lucas Bicalho, Vinicius Silva Machado, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063157
Abstract: In this study, we use barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the fecal microbiota of neonatal calves and identify possible relationships of certain microbiota profiles with health and weight gain. Fecal samples were obtained weekly from 61 calves from birth until weaning (seventh week of the calves' life). Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum, with a prevalence ranging from 63.84% to 81.90%, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.36% to 23.93%), Proteobacteria (3.72% to 9.75%), Fusobacteria (0.76% to 5.67%), and Actinobacteria (1.02% to 2.35%). Chao1 index gradually increased from the first to the seventh postnatal week. Chao1 index was lower during the third, fourth, and fifth week of life in calves that suffered from pneumonia and were treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea incidence during the first four weeks of the calves' life was also associated with a reduction of microbial diversity during the third week of life. Increased fecal microbial diversity after the second week of life was associated with higher weight gain. Using discriminant analysis we were able to show differences in the microbiota profiles between different weeks of life, between high and low weight gain groups of calves, and between calves affected and not affected with diarrhea during the first four weeks life. The prevalence of Faecalibacterium spp. in the first week of life was associated with weight gain and the incidence of diarrhea, with higher prevalence being associated with higher weight gain and less diarrhea. Representative sequences from Faecalibacterium spp. were closely affiliated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results presented here provide new information regarding the intestinal microbiota of neonatal calves and its association with health and growth. Fecal microbial diversity was associated with calf age, disease status and growth rates. Results suggesting a possible beneficial effect of Faecalibacterium spp. on health and growth are promising.
Microbial Diversity of Bovine Mastitic Milk as Described by Pyrosequencing of Metagenomic 16s rDNA
Georgios Oikonomou, Vinicius Silva Machado, Carlos Santisteban, Ynte Hein Schukken, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047671
Abstract: Dairy cow mastitis is an important disease in the dairy industry. Different microbial species have been identified as causative agents in mastitis, and are traditionally diagnosed by bacterial culture. The objective of this study was to use metagenomic pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to investigate bacterial DNA diversity in milk samples of mastitic and healthy dairy cows and compare the results with those obtained by classical bacterial culture. One hundred and thirty-six milk samples were collected from cows showing signs of mastitis and used for microbiological culture. Additionally, 20 milk samples were collected from healthy quarters. Bacterial DNA was isolated from the same milk samples and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and pyrosequenced. Discriminant analysis showed that the groups of samples that were most clearly different from the rest and thus easily discriminated were the normal milk samples from healthy cows and those characterised by culture as Trueperella pyogenes and Streptococcus spp. The mastitis pathogens identified by culture were generally among the most frequent organisms detected by pyrosequencing, and in some cases (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Streptococcus uberis mastitis) the single most prevalent microorganism. Trueperella pyogenes sequences were the second most prevalent sequences in mastitis cases diagnosed as Trueperella pyogenes by culture, Streptococcus dysgalactiae sequences were the second most prevalent sequences in mastitis cases diagnosed as Streptococcus dysgalactiae by culture, and Staphyloccocus aureus sequences were the third most prevalent in mastitis cases diagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus by culture. In samples that were aerobic culture negative, pyrosequencing identified DNA of bacteria that are known to cause mastitis, DNA of bacteria that are known pathogens but have so far not been associated with mastitis, and DNA of bacteria that are currently not known to be pathogens. A possible role of anaerobic pathogens in bovine mastitis is also suggested.
Microbiota of Cow’s Milk; Distinguishing Healthy, Sub-Clinically and Clinically Diseased Quarters
Georgios Oikonomou, Marcela Lucas Bicalho, Enoch Meira, Rodolfo Elke Rossi, Carla Foditsch, Vinicius Silva Machado, Andre Gustavo Vieira Teixeira, Carlos Santisteban, Ynte Hein Schukken, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085904
Abstract: The objective of this study was to use pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes to describe the microbial diversity of bovine milk samples derived from clinically unaffected quarters across a range of somatic cell counts (SCC) values or from clinical mastitis, culture negative quarters. The obtained microbiota profiles were used to distinguish healthy, subclinically and clinically affected quarters. Two dairy farms were used for the collection of milk samples. A total of 177 samples were used. Fifty samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters with a SCC of less than 20,000 cells/ml (group 1); 34 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a SCC ranging from 21,000 to 50,000 cells/ml (group 2); 26 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters with a SCC greater than 50,000 cells/ml (group 3); 34 samples derived from healthy, culture positive quarters, with a SCC greater than 400,000 (group 4, subclinical); and 33 samples derived from clinical mastitis, culture negative quarters (group 5, clinical). Bacterial DNA was isolated from these samples and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and pyrosequenced. All samples analyzed revealed great microbial diversity. Four bacterial genera were present in every sample obtained from healthy quarters (Faecalibacterium spp., unclassified Lachnospiraceae, Propionibacterium spp. and Aeribacillus spp.). Discriminant analysis models showed that samples derived from healthy quarters were easily discriminated based on their microbiota profiles from samples derived from clinical mastitis, culture negative quarters; that was also the case for samples obtained from different farms. Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. were among the most prevalent genera in all groups while a general multivariable linear model revealed that Sphingobacterium and Streptococcus prevalences were associated with increased 10 log SCC. Conversely, Nocardiodes and Paenibacillus were negatively correlated, and a higher percentage of the genera was associated with a lower 10 log SCC.
Subcutaneous Immunization with Inactivated Bacterial Components and Purified Protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes Prevents Puerperal Metritis in Holstein Dairy Cows
Vinícius Silva Machado, Marcela Luccas de Souza Bicalho, Enoch Brand?o de Souza Meira Junior, Rodolfo Rossi, Bruno Leonardo Ribeiro, Svetlana Lima, Thiago Santos, Arieli Kussler, Carla Foditsch, Erika Korzune Ganda, Georgios Oikonomou, Soon Hon Cheong, Robert Owen Gilbert, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091734
Abstract: In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes can prevent puerperal metritis during the first lactation of dairy cows, leading to improved reproduction.
Diversity and Succession of Bacterial Communities in the Uterine Fluid of Postpartum Metritic, Endometritic and Healthy Dairy Cows
Thiago M. A. Santos, Rodrigo C. Bicalho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053048
Abstract: The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34–36 days postpartum (DPP), the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine contamination with diverse bacterial groups following calving and emphasizes the role of unidentified microorganisms in this context.
Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease
Maria Clara Noman de Alencar, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha, Márcia Maria de Oliveira Lima, Henrique Silveira Costa, Giovane Rodrigo Sousa, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho Carneiro, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues Silva, Fernando Vieira Brand?o, Lucas Jordan Kreuser, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Maria Carmo Pereira Nunes
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100753
Abstract: Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p = 0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p = 0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls.
Viabilidade ambiental para a cria??o de unidades de conserva??o na Ilha da Coroa, Mossoró - RN
Varela, Marisa Carvalho;Carvalho, Rodrigo Guimar?es;
Sociedade & Natureza , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-45132009000200002
Abstract: this paper aims at studying an area inserted in the fluvial lowland of the apodi-mossoró river. it is a fluvial island called ilha da coroa, situated in the alagados neighborhood, in the urban area of the municipality of mossoró. many environmental parameters were evaluated in order to verify the feasibility of creating conservation units. in order to reach this goal we researched the bibliography and the legislation related to the topic, analyzed aerial photos, applied questionnaires with residents and users of the area, visited public institutions for collecting data and checked the field. even though most of the indicators are not favorable, the possibility of creating conservation units in ilha da coroa should not be discarded, due to the great fragility of the fluvial ecosystems associated to the apodi-mossoró river.
Viabilidade ambiental para a cria o de unidades de conserva o na Ilha da Coroa, Mossoró – RN / Environment feasibility for creating conservation units in Ilha da Coroa, Mossoró, Brazil
Marisa Carvalho Varela,Rodrigo Guimar?es Carvalho
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2009,
Abstract: This paper aims at studying an area inserted in the fluvial lowland of the Apodi-Mossoró river. It isa fluvial island called Ilha da Coroa, situated in the Alagados neighborhood, in the urban area ofthe municipality of Mossoró. Many environmental parameters were evaluated in order to verify thefeasibility of creating conservation units. In order to reach this goal we researched the bibliographyand the legislation related to the topic, analyzed aerial photos, applied questionnaires with residentsand users of the area, visited public institutions for collecting data and checked the field. Eventhough most of the indicators are not favorable, the possibility of creating conservation units inIlha da Coroa should not be discarded, due to the great fragility of the fluvial ecosystems associatedto the Apodi-Mossoró river.
Schistosomiasis and Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma  [PDF]
Rodrigo de Carvalho Holanda Leite, Cecília Maria de Carvalho Xavier Holanda, Paulo José de Medeiros
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.39116
Abstract: Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and it affects four times more men than women. The relationship between bladder tumors and Schistosoma haematobium is well known, but only sporadic cases of bladder infection due to Schistosoma mansoni have been reported. Schistosoma mansoni infection causes an endemic disease in Brazil (schistosomiasis) and gastrointestinal disorders are very common, but disease of the urinary tract is atypical. The aim of this study was to describe a case of a patient presenting schistosomiasis (S. mansoni) and urothelial bladder carcinoma. In this case, a 37-year-old man with intermittent painless gross hematuria was investigated. Cystoscopy revealed a small pedunculated lesion in the bladder dome. Transurethral resection revealed urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, low degree, unrepresentative of the muscular layer of the bladder. After 30 days, a new transurethral resection was performed to sample acquisition of the muscular layer on the basis of the scar. Histopathology was negative for malignancy (Tumor Node Metastasis: TNM-T1). During this procedure, there was evidence of dark rounded lesion in the bladder dome. It was excised and the histopathology showed viable eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. The patient was treated orally with oxamniquine and remained in oncological monitoring with cystoscopy quarterly and serial clinical evaluation. This case reveals a rare finding of Schistosoma mansoni in the bladder and urothelial bladder carcinoma coexisting in the same patient.
O princípio de precau o no comércio multilateral
Rodrigo Carvalho de Abreu Lima
Sequência : Estudos Juridicos e Politicos , 2003,
Abstract: A forma com que os países cuidamdas políticas relativas aos riscos deve levarem considera o o princípio de precau o nocontexto das rela es comerciais. Este artigocuida das possibilidades de aplica o doprincípio, tendo como base o Acordo sobreBarreiras Técnicas ao Comércio (TBT) e oAcordo sobre a Aplica o de MedidasSanitárias e Fitossanitárias (SPS) da OMC, eprincípios, como a cláusula da na o maisfavorecida e tratamento nacional. Para umavis o mais detalhada, discute como o painele o órg o de Apela o trataram o princípiono Caso dos Horm nios, enfatizando oartigo 5.7 do SPS, e a necessidade de verifica ode risco e justifica o científica parajustificar uma medida. Por fim, trata doprincípio diante das negocia es lan adas emnovembro de 2001, em Doha. A conclus opermite observar que o princípio n o é aceitono contexto comercial como é previsto nasconven es ambientais, o que n o afasta apossibilidade de aplicar medidas baseadasnuma vis o precaucional.The way countries handle theirpolitics concerning risks must take intoaccount the role of the precautionaryprinciple in the context of the trade relations.The article faces the possibilities of applyingthe principle, addressing the WTOAgreement on Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT) and the Agreement on the Applicationof Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures(SPS), and principles, such as most favorednation clause and national treatment. To amore accurate vision, it discusses the waythe panel and the Appellate Body treated theprinciple in the Hormones Case, emphasizingthe article 5.7 of the SPS, and thenecessity of risk assessment and scientificjustification to justify such a measure. By theend, it talks about the principle inside thenegotiations launched in November 2001, inDoha. The conclusion states that the principleis not accepted in the trade context as in theenvironmental conventions, which do nottake out the possibility of applying measuresbased on the precautionary approach.
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