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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 159849 matches for " Rodrigo B.;Melo "
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Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini), with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism
Gon?alves, Rodrigo B.;Melo, Gabriel A. R.;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262012005000011
Abstract: phylogeny and revision of the bee genus rhinocorynura schrottky (hymenoptera, apidae, augochlorini), with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. a taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of rhinocorynura are provided. six species are recognized: r. briseis, r. crotonis, r. inflaticeps and r. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with r. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, r. brunnea sp. nov. and r. viridis sp. nov. lectotypes for halictus crotonis ducke, 1906 and halictus inflaticeps ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. another available name included in rhinocorynura, corynuropsis ashmeadi schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in augochlorini. rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (r. crotonis (r. briseis ((r. brunnea sp. nov. + r. viridis sp. nov.) (r. inflaticeps + r. vernoniae)))). biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, r. inflaticeps and r. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.
A comunidade de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae s. l.) em uma área restrita de campo natural no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Paraná: diversidade, fenologia e fontes florais de alimento
Gon?alves, Rodrigo B.;Melo, Gabriel A. R.;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262005000400017
Abstract: a standardized survey of bees visiting blooming plants in an area covered by natural grasslands in the vila velha state park was conducted from october, 2002, to october, 2003. a total of 1552 specimens belonging to 181 species were collected. these species are distributed in 58 genera, 24 tribes and 5 subfamilies. the visited plants belong to 113 species, in 72 genera and 38 families. megachile, with 20 species, was the richest genus, while ceratina was the most abundant native genus. apis mellifera was the most abundant species, with 28% of all bees collected. among the native species, bombus atratus was the most abundant. monthly richness and equitability varied along the year, march being the richest, and november, the most equitable. despite being traditionally placed within the southern steppes, the open grasslands of vila velha contain numerous species previously only known from the cerrados of central brazil. also, when compared to other areas with open vegetation in brazil, the bee fauna of vila velha stands out for having the subfamilies apinae and halictinae with equal number of species. lists of bee species and of their host plants are appended.
Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato)
Melo, Gabriel A. R.;Gon?alves, Rodrigo B.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000100017
Abstract: a higher-level classification of bees, in which the entire group is treated as a single family - the apidae - is advocated here. a total of seven subfamilies, 51 tribes and 27 subtribes are recognized. these subfamilies correspond to the families adopted in the traditional classification. although the proposed changes do not involve any major rearrangement, basically only changing the rank given to the main groups, the new system makes the classification of bees more consistent with that adopted for other major groups of aculeate hymenoptera. it also departs from the 19th century practice, perpetuated in the traditional classification, of giving family-status to the main groups of bees. a correspondence table associating the taxon names used in the current traditional classification with those of the revised classification is presented. scrapterini new tribe (type-genus scrapter lepeletier & serville) is proposed to accommodate the southern african genus scrapter.
A assembléia de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apidae) de uma área restrita de campos naturais do Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Paraná e compara??es com áreas de campos e cerrado
Gon?alves, Rodrigo B.;Melo, Gabriel A.R.;Aguiar, Antonio J.C.;
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (S?o Paulo) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0031-10492009001400001
Abstract: systematic samplings of bees were conducted at a site in vila velha state park, paraná state, brazil, from october 2003 to september 2004. this study aimed at gathering data to compare the bee fauna of grassland sites of vila velha with other brazilian bee assemblages from areas covered with open plant formations. the study area has four hectares and was subdivided in four contiguous subareas of one hectare each for sampling purposes. bees visiting flowers or in flight were captured with entomological nets. a total of 1.459 specimens, belonging to 122 bee species, 51 genera, 20 tribes and five subfamilies, were collected. the bees visited a total of 93 plant species belonging to 62 genera and 29 families. summing the present assemblage with that from a previous study in another site at the park resulted in a total of 222 bee species, 74 of which are species shared between the two sites and 148 were found at one of the sites only. additional data from historic samplings at vila velha rise the known richness to 261 species. the morisita similarity index between the areas is 0.50 when visited plants species are used as variables and 0.88 when using bee genera and species. the fauna of vila velha was compared to other bee assemblages from natural grasslands and cerrado areas using similarity indexes and correspondence analysis. two groupings, one composed by grasslands sites and the other by cerrado sites, were recovered by the analyses. also, the correspondence analysis indicates that some bee genera are associated to specific plant formations. based on this study, the bee fauna of vila velha is composed mainly by genera related to grasslands with presence of some elements from the cerrado.
Changes in wild bee fauna of a grassland in Brazil reveal negative effects associated with growing urbanization during the last 40 years
Aline C. Martins,Rodrigo B. Gon?alves,Gabriel A. R. Melo
Zoologia (Curitiba) , 2013,
Abstract: Bee fauna and associated flora from a grassland site in Brazil, surveyed 40 and 20 years ago, were newly surveyed with comparable methodology to evaluate changes in the bee fauna of this site, considering that human population and urbanization has exponentially increased in the last 40 years. In general, bee species richness has declined in 22%, as well as their abundance. Some of the previously abundant species are now absent, including Bombus bellicosus Smith, 1879, Gaesischia fulgurans (Holmberg, 1903) and Thectochlora basiatra (Strand, 1910). No particular trend of differential decrease among either taxonomic or functional groups was observed, except for a minor increase in the proportion of oligolectic species and a 50% reduction in the number of large species. The first two surveys were more similar to each other in species richness per bee genus, while the two most recent grouped together based on measures of anthropogenic impact. Furthermore, the number of plant species visited by bees increased, with a pronounced increase in ruderal and exotic species. Crop cultivation, competition with honeybees and climate changes may all be related to bee decline. Nevertheless, the effects of urbanization, in particular intense land occupation and few preserved natural areas can be pointed as the main causes of species decline. Due to continuing increase in human population, increased erosion in diversity is expected. Habitat protection is an additional challenge to bee conservation in the region, with no local conservation units set aside for grasslands. State and municipal agencies should urgently consider the establishment of reserves for the few remaining patches of natural grasslands.
How Doctors Generate Diagnostic Hypotheses: A Study of Radiological Diagnosis with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Marcio Melo, Daniel J. Scarpin, Edson Amaro, Rodrigo B. D. Passos, Jo?o R. Sato, Karl J. Friston, Cathy J. Price
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028752
Abstract: Background In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life. Methodology and Principal Findings To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals) embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs) and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14) seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13) seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds). The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals. Conclusions Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and naming in everyday life are supported by similar brain systems.
Cognitive dysfunction in congestive heart failure: transcranial Doppler evidence of microembolic etiology
Jesus, Pedro A.P.;Vieira-de-Melo, Rodrigo M.;Reis, Francisco J.F.B.;Viana, Leila C.;Lacerda, Amanda;Dias, Jesangeli S.;Oliveira-Filho, Jamary;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2006000200007
Abstract: cognitive symptoms are common in patients with congestive heart failure (chf) and are usually attributed to low cerebral blood flow. in the present study, we aimed to evaluate global cognitive function (mini mental state exam mmse) in relation to both cardiac function (evaluated by echocardiogram) and cerebrovascular hemodynamics (evaluated by transcranial doppler tcd) in chf patients. in 83 patients studied, no correlation was found between echocardiographic parameters and mmse scores. in contrast, a significant correlation was found between right middle cerebral artery (rmca) mean flow velocity and mmse score (r=0.231 p=0.039), as well as between rmca pulsatility index and mmse score (rs= -0.292 p=0.015). after excluding patients with a previous history of stroke, only rmca pulsatility index correlated with mmse score (rs=-0,314 p=0,007). the relationship between high cerebrovascular resistance and worse cognitive scores suggest that microembolism may be responsible for a significant proportion of cognitive symptoms in chf patients.
Notes on the identity of Halictus glabrescens Cockerell and description of a new species of Halictillus Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae s.l., Halictinae)
Gon?alves, Rodrigo B;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000500014
Abstract: a lectotype is newly designated for halictus glabriventris friese (a homonym and replaced by h. glabrescens cockerell) and the name transferred from halictillus (augochlorini) to dialictus (halictini), where it is a junior synonym of dialictus spinolae (reed). this placement resolves a long standing confusion involving the association of this name with a nest description from the beginning of the last century. in addition, a new species of halictillus from chile is described and figured.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: darwin s second book was totally dedicated to the floral functional morphology and pollination of temperate and tropical orchids. this book was published in 1862 and was likely conceived as an assemblage of evidence supporting ideas that were proposed in -on the origin of the species-; namely, the advantages of the intercrossing between different coespecific individuals, even if they are hermaphrodite (like the orchids). the great floral diversity and the outstanding number of reproductive strategies that promote cross-pollination in orchidaceae fascinated darwin who, in turn, used this plant group as a model to support his ideas. darwin described for the first time and in a very accurate way, orchid reproductive strategies that clearly promote cross-pollination, such as protandry in terrestrial orchids and the production of unisexual flowers in catasetum, among many other important contributions. darwin s ideas and proposals regarding orchidaceae are analyzed on the light of our present knowledge and prove to be mostly correct and valid.
Pollination biology of Habenaria parviflora (Orchidaceae: Habenariinae) in southeastern Brazil
Rodrigo B. Singer
Darwiniana , 2001,
Abstract: Se estudió la biologia floral de Habenaria parviflora (Orchidaceae: Habenariinae) en Picinguaba, Estado de S o Paulo, sudeste del Brasil, con la finalidad de incrementar el conocimiento sobre la biología de la polinización y morfología funcional de este género de Orquídeas terrestres. Estas plantas son autocompatibles, pero polinizador-dependientes. Los polinizadores registrados fueron hembras de Tipúlidos (Diptera: Tipulidae) y polillas Pyralidae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). El mecanismo de polinización es el mismo, independientemente del tipo de polinizador: los polinarios se fijan a la probóscide de los polinizadores a través de su viscidio en forma de guante, y son removidos cuando los insectos dejan las flores. Cuando visita otra flor, un insecto que lleva polinários los rozará contra las superfícies estigmáticas, dejando acúmulos de másulas, efectuando así la polinización. Hasta donde se sabe, este tipo de fijación de polinarios es informado por primera vez para el género Habenaria y es una clara consecuencia de la morfología del viscidio. El viscidio involuto, en forma de guante, es una característica única entre las especies neotropicales del género Habenaria. Los caracteres florales que favorecen la polinización cruzada son discutidos brevemente. éste es también hasta donde sabemos, el primer registro de polinización de orquídeas por Tipúlidos (Tipulidae) en los neotrópicos
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