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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 244 matches for " Rodolphe Barrangou "
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The Population and Evolutionary Dynamics of Phage and Bacteria with CRISPR–Mediated Immunity
Bruce R. Levin ,Sylvain Moineau,Mary Bushman,Rodolphe Barrangou
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003312
Abstract: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), together with associated genes (cas), form the CRISPR–cas adaptive immune system, which can provide resistance to viruses and plasmids in bacteria and archaea. Here, we use mathematical models, population dynamic experiments, and DNA sequence analyses to investigate the host–phage interactions in a model CRISPR–cas system, Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC7710 and its virulent phage 2972. At the molecular level, the bacteriophage-immune mutant bacteria (BIMs) and CRISPR–escape mutant phage (CEMs) obtained in this study are consistent with those anticipated from an iterative model of this adaptive immune system: resistance by the addition of novel spacers and phage evasion of resistance by mutation in matching sequences or flanking motifs. While CRISPR BIMs were readily isolated and CEMs generated at high rates (frequencies in excess of 10?6), our population studies indicate that there is more to the dynamics of phage–host interactions and the establishment of a BIM–CEM arms race than predicted from existing assumptions about phage infection and CRISPR–cas immunity. Among the unanticipated observations are: (i) the invasion of phage into populations of BIMs resistant by the acquisition of one (but not two) spacers, (ii) the survival of sensitive bacteria despite the presence of high densities of phage, and (iii) the maintenance of phage-limited communities due to the failure of even two-spacer BIMs to become established in populations with wild-type bacteria and phage. We attribute (i) to incomplete resistance of single-spacer BIMs. Based on the results of additional modeling and experiments, we postulate that (ii) and (iii) can be attributed to the phage infection-associated production of enzymes or other compounds that induce phenotypic phage resistance in sensitive bacteria and kill resistant BIMs. We present evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications of these results for the ecology and (co)evolution of bacteria and phage.
Transcriptional Analysis of Prebiotic Uptake and Catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM
Joakim Mark Andersen, Rodolphe Barrangou, Maher Abou Hachem, Sampo J. Lahtinen, Yong-Jun Goh, Birte Svensson, Todd R. Klaenhammer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044409
Abstract: The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Phage-Induced Expression of CRISPR-Associated Proteins Is Revealed by Shotgun Proteomics in Streptococcus thermophilus
Jacque C. Young, Brian D. Dill, Chongle Pan, Robert L. Hettich, Jillian F. Banfield, Manesh Shah, Christophe Fremaux, Philippe Horvath, Rodolphe Barrangou, Nathan C. VerBerkmoes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038077
Abstract: The CRISPR/Cas system, comprised of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats along with their associated (Cas) proteins, protects bacteria and archaea from viral predation and invading nucleic acids. While the mechanism of action for this acquired immunity is currently under investigation, the response of Cas protein expression to phage infection has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we employed shotgun proteomics to measure the global proteome expression in a model system for studying the CRISPR/Cas response in S. thermophilus DGCC7710 infected with phage 2972. Host and viral proteins were simultaneously measured following inoculation at two different multiplicities of infection and across various time points using two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-seven out of forty predicted viral proteins were detected, including all proteins of the structural virome and viral effector proteins. In total, 1,013 of 2,079 predicted S. thermophilus proteins were detected, facilitating the monitoring of host protein synthesis changes in response to virus infection. Importantly, Cas proteins from all four CRISPR loci in the S. thermophilus DGCC7710 genome were detected, including loci previously thought to be inactive. Many Cas proteins were found to be constitutively expressed, but several demonstrated increased abundance following infection, including the signature Cas9 proteins from the CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 loci, which are key players in the interference phase of the CRISPR/Cas response. Altogether, these results provide novel insights into the proteomic response of S. thermophilus, specifically CRISPR-associated proteins, upon phage 2972 infection.
The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica
James B. Pettengill,Ruth E. Timme,Rodolphe Barrangou,Magaly Toro,Marc W. Allard,Errol Strain,Steven M. Musser,Eric W. Brown
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.340
Abstract: Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations.
Persisting Viral Sequences Shape Microbial CRISPR-based Immunity
Ariel D. Weinberger ? ,Christine L. Sun ?,Mateusz M. Pluciński,Vincent J. Denef,Brian C. Thomas,Philippe Horvath,Rodolphe Barrangou,Michael S. Gilmore,Wayne M. Getz,Jillian F. Banfield
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002475
Abstract: Well-studied innate immune systems exist throughout bacteria and archaea, but a more recently discovered genomic locus may offer prokaryotes surprising immunological adaptability. Mediated by a cassette-like genomic locus termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), the microbial adaptive immune system differs from its eukaryotic immune analogues by incorporating new immunities unidirectionally. CRISPR thus stores genomically recoverable timelines of virus-host coevolution in natural organisms refractory to laboratory cultivation. Here we combined a population genetic mathematical model of CRISPR-virus coevolution with six years of metagenomic sequencing to link the recoverable genomic dynamics of CRISPR loci to the unknown population dynamics of virus and host in natural communities. Metagenomic reconstructions in an acid-mine drainage system document CRISPR loci conserving ancestral immune elements to the base-pair across thousands of microbial generations. This ‘trailer-end conservation’ occurs despite rapid viral mutation and despite rapid prokaryotic genomic deletion. The trailer-ends of many reconstructed CRISPR loci are also largely identical across a population. ‘Trailer-end clonality’ occurs despite predictions of host immunological diversity due to negative frequency dependent selection (kill the winner dynamics). Statistical clustering and model simulations explain this lack of diversity by capturing rapid selective sweeps by highly immune CRISPR lineages. Potentially explaining ‘trailer-end conservation,’ we record the first example of a viral bloom overwhelming a CRISPR system. The polyclonal viruses bloom even though they share sequences previously targeted by host CRISPR loci. Simulations show how increasing random genomic deletions in CRISPR loci purges immunological controls on long-lived viral sequences, allowing polyclonal viruses to bloom and depressing host fitness. Our results thus link documented patterns of genomic conservation in CRISPR loci to an evolutionary advantage against persistent viruses. By maintaining old immunities, selection may be tuning CRISPR-mediated immunity against viruses reemerging from lysogeny or migration.
S’exclure pour vendre : quand Diego Dalla Palma fait de la publicité
Rodolphe Pauvert
Mémoire(s), Identité(s), Marginalité(s) dans le Monde Occidental Contemporain , 2006,
Abstract: L’image de l’exclusion reste malgré tout négative. Une entreprise pourrait-elle associer de tels signes à ses produits, à sa communication ? Pour répondre à cette interrogation il convient de se pencher sur le rapport qui existe entre un entrepreneur, une entreprise, des produits et une communication. Les signes associés aux biens de consommation trouvent-ils leur source dans l’image de l’homme ou est-ce que ce dernier n’est que le reflet ‘humanisé’ d’une communication d’entreprise orchestrée...
El discurso de la extrema derecha francesa: las constantes y un líder
Rodolphe Ghiglione
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología , 1993,
Abstract:
Brownian motion conditioned to stay in a cone
Rodolphe Garbit
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: A result of R. Durrett, D. Iglehart and D. Miller states that Brownian meander is Brownian motion conditioned to stay positive for a unit of time, in the sense that it is the weak limit, as $x$ goes to 0, of Brownian motion started at $x>0$ and conditioned to stay positive for a unit of time. We extend this limit theorem to the case of multidimensional Brownian motion conditioned to stay in a smooth convex cone.
A central limit theorem for two-dimensional random walks in a cone
Rodolphe Garbit
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: We prove that a planar random walk with bounded increments and mean zero which is conditioned to stay in a cone converges weakly to the corresponding Brownian meander if and only if the tail distribution of the exit time from the cone is regularly varying. This condition is satisfied in many natural examples.
A note on Furstenberg's filtering problem
Rodolphe Garbit
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: This short note gives a positive answer to an old question in elementary probability theory that arose in Furstenberg's seminal article "Disjointness in Ergodic Theory." As a consequence, Furstenberg's filtering theorem holds without any integrability assumption.
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