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Canonical Wnt Signaling Promotes Early Hematopoietic Progenitor Formation and Erythroid Specification during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation
Anuradha Tarafdar, Edwina Dobbin, Pamela Corrigan, Robin Freeburn, Helen Wheadon
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081030
Abstract: The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between β-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. β-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. β-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP) formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of β-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction.
Aging and the decline in health  [PDF]
Robin Holliday
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26092
Abstract: The biological reasons for aging are now understood. Aging is the result of multiple stochastic events in molecules, cells, tissues and organs. These together produce the aged phenotype, senescence and ultimately death. Many of these changes can be directly linked to specific age-associated disease. However, there are also age-related changes that are not pathological. It can be said that aging has multiple causes, or is instead due to a general loss of molecular fidelity, that is, an increase in disorder. The complexity of organism means that they develop as ordered structures by obtaining energy from the environment. These ordered structures must be maintained by a wide variety of mechanisms which also depend on energy resources. Eventually these mechanisms fail, and senescence sets in. It is known that the efficiency of maintenance is correlated directly with the lifespan of different mammalian species. Also, these lifespans are inversely correlated with fecundity or reproductive potential. There is a trade off between investment of resources in maintenance of the body, or soma, and investment in reproduction.
Adoption and Use of Household Microgeneration Heat Technologies  [PDF]
Sally Caird, Robin Roy
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.12008
Abstract: The development and rapid household adoption of smallscale, low and zero carbon microgeneration technologies are key elements of UK and EU strategies to meet the challenge of climate change. Microgeneration heat technologies, including solar thermal hot water, heat pumps and biomass heating systems, have an especially important role in reducing the carbon emissions from buildings. But despite government policies to promote microgeneration, adoption by UK householders is very slow. Surveys by the Open University and Energy Saving Trust examined why over 900 UK householders decided to adopt these technologies and why many do not. These surveys describe the niche market for microgeneration heat as largely confined to environmentally concerned, older, middleclass householders, mainly living in larger properties off the mains gas network. Although these pioneer adopters are generally highly satisfied, for microgeneration heat to expand beyond its market niche, several issues need to be addressed, including: price reductions and subsidies? independent information on the suitability, performance, payback and effective use of equipment? ‘one- stop’ support from consideration to operation? improved system compatibility with smaller properties and existing buildings and heating systems? and more userfriendly and informative controls.
Strategizing the Development of Alzheimer’s Therapeutics  [PDF]
Justin Davis, Robin Couch
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2014.33011
Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease is a complex, progressive condition with symptoms that do not reveal themselves until significant changes to neuronal morphology have already occurred. The delayed manifestation of cognitive decline makes determination of the true etiological origins difficult. As a result, identification of ideal drug targets becomes seemingly impossible. The existing treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease may temporarily suppress the rate of cognitive decline, but do little to slow or halt neuronal decay. While many believe that the current approaches to identifying a cure for the disease are too narrow-minded, focusing heavily on the physical manifestations of the diseased brain such as amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, this review asserts the status of Alzheimer’s research as rational and multi-faceted.
Rural Adolescent Residential Treatment Facilities as Centers of Clinical Support and Excellence  [PDF]
Kenneth M. Coll, Robin Haas
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32013
Abstract: In rural western states (e.g., Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Utah) that are large geographically and small in population, it is unrealistic to expect to have comprehensive mental health and substance abuse professional support in most rural communities. One viable idea is for mature and distinguished treatment facilities in those geographic areas to expand their delivery system.
A new proof of some identities of Bressoud
Robin Chapman
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202110155
Abstract: We provide a new proof of the following two identities due to Bressoud: ∑m=0Nqm2[Nm]=∑m=−∞∞(−1)mqm(5m
Parallel Lives
Robin Meadows
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000528
Cancer Courts Immune Response to Aid Growth
Robin Mejia
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001004
Bad Taste Protects Fruit Flies from Eating a Toxic Amino Acid in Plants
Robin Meadows
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000128
Nematodes Go Viral
Robin Meadows
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001011
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