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Genotypic Variation for Tolerance to Low Soil Phosphorous in Common Bean under Controlled Screen House Conditions  [PDF]
Annet Namayanja, Johnson Semoka, Robin Buruchara, Susan Nchimbi, Moses Waswa
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.54030

Production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is often limited by the low availability of soil phosphorus (P). Identification of common bean genotypes adapted to low phosphorus (P) availability may be a feasible strategy to overcome the poor plant growth and production in P-deficient soils. Genetic variation for P response of thirteen common bean genotypes was studied under screen house controlled conditions using triple super phosphate as P source. The common bean genotypes varied in leaf area, shoot mass, root mass, total root length, basal and lateral roots production, shoot P concentration and P uptake under phosphorous deficiency and high phosphorous. All the measured variables were significantly correlated with each other, which in turn were correlated to P uptake. Generally the large-seeded genotypes RWR 1946 and RWR 2075 appeared to have the best growth, hence superior P efficiency under low P availability, while at the same time they were more responsive to added P. These results complement the earlier field based observed tolerance to low soil phosphorous of the selected genotypes under the BILFA strategy.

Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of African farmers
Segenet Kelemu, George Mahuku, Martin Fregene, Douglas Pachino, Nancy Johnson, Lee Calvert, Idupulapati Rao, Robin Buruchara, Tilahun Amede, Paul Kimani, Roger Kirkby, Susan Kaaria, Kwasi Ampofo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: The intense debate over agricultural biotechnology is at once fascinating, confusing and disappointing. It is complicated by issues of ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific import. Its vocal champions exaggerate their claims of biotechnology as saviour of the poor and hungry, while, equally loudly, its opponents declare it as the doomsday devil of agriculture. Sandwiched between these two camps is the rest of the public, either absorbed or indifferent. Biotechnology issues specific to the African public must include crop and animal productivity, food security, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and must exclude political considerations. Food and its availability are basic human rights issues—for people without food, everything else is insignificant. Although we should discuss and challenge new technologies and their products, bringing the agricultural biotechnology debate into food aid for Africa where millions are faced with life-or-death situations is irresponsible. Agricultural biotechnology promises the impoverished African a means to improve food security and reduce pressures on the environment, provided the perceived risks associated with the technology are addressed. This paper attempts to harmonize the debate, and to examine the potential benefits and risks that agricultural biotechnology brings to African farmers.
Aging and the decline in health  [PDF]
Robin Holliday
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26092
Abstract: The biological reasons for aging are now understood. Aging is the result of multiple stochastic events in molecules, cells, tissues and organs. These together produce the aged phenotype, senescence and ultimately death. Many of these changes can be directly linked to specific age-associated disease. However, there are also age-related changes that are not pathological. It can be said that aging has multiple causes, or is instead due to a general loss of molecular fidelity, that is, an increase in disorder. The complexity of organism means that they develop as ordered structures by obtaining energy from the environment. These ordered structures must be maintained by a wide variety of mechanisms which also depend on energy resources. Eventually these mechanisms fail, and senescence sets in. It is known that the efficiency of maintenance is correlated directly with the lifespan of different mammalian species. Also, these lifespans are inversely correlated with fecundity or reproductive potential. There is a trade off between investment of resources in maintenance of the body, or soma, and investment in reproduction.
Reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races of phaeoisariopsis griseola occuring in Kenya
IN Wagara, AW Mwangómbe, JW Kimenju, RA Buruchara, PM Kimani
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The wide pathogenic variability occurring in Phaeoisariopsis griseola, the causal agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), dictates that new sources of resistance be continuously identified. This study was undertaken to determine the reaction of selected bean genotypes to different races of P. griseola in order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean genotypes from Eastern and Central Africa Bean Research Network (ECABREN) and National Dryland Farming Research Centre (NDFRC), Katumani in Kenya were separately inoculated with forty-four races of P. griseola and evaluated for disease development under greenhouse conditions. The genotypes included small- and large-seeded types. None of the genotypes was resistant to all the races, indicating a high complexity of the pathogen population. Thirteen genotypes were resistant (disease score 1 to 3) or moderately resistant (score 4 to 6) to at least 40 of the races. Small- seeded bean genotypes ECAB 0754 and ECAB 0617 were resistant or moderately resistant to all races except Mesoamerican race 33-39 and Afro-Andean race 58-18, respectively. Genotype ECAB 0754 exhibited the highest level of resistance, with an average disease severity of 1.1%. All the resistant or moderately resistant genotypes were of the smallseeded bean types which are commercially less popular. The commonly grown large-seeded genotypes were generally susceptible. Among the bean genotypes evaluated, the small-seeded pintos and browns/yellows possessed high levels of resistance. The results of this study indicate that different bean genotypes have varying levels of resistance to angular leaf spot that can be pyramided into appropriate background to provide durable resistance.
Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya
SW Wahome, PM Kimani, JW Muthomi, RD Narla, R Buruchara
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium scale farmers under various disease constraints. Disease resistant varieties can reduce reliance on fungicides, and enhance the capacities of smallholder farmers to meet the stringent European export requirements for allowable fungicide residues. This study was carried out to identify snap bean lines with multiple disease resistance to angular leaf spot (Phaeoisareopsis griseola), anthracnose (Collectotrichum lindemuthianum) and rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Seven groups of snap bean populations of different generations, and 45 bush snap bean lines, including local checks, were evaluated for resistance to the three diseases at two locations in Kenya. The disease with the highest severity was rust, followed by angular leaf spot. Among the advanced lines, two bush lines (KSB 10 W and KSB 10 BR), and one climbing line (HAV 130) had consistent multiple resistance to angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust at both locations. Nine lines and 674 single plants were selected from populations showing multiple disease resistance. Resistance in selected lines reduced angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust severity by 17, 16 and 36%, respectively. The multiple disease resistant lines were not the highest yielders but had the highest number of pods per plant. Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality.
Adoption and Use of Household Microgeneration Heat Technologies  [PDF]
Sally Caird, Robin Roy
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.12008
Abstract: The development and rapid household adoption of smallscale, low and zero carbon microgeneration technologies are key elements of UK and EU strategies to meet the challenge of climate change. Microgeneration heat technologies, including solar thermal hot water, heat pumps and biomass heating systems, have an especially important role in reducing the carbon emissions from buildings. But despite government policies to promote microgeneration, adoption by UK householders is very slow. Surveys by the Open University and Energy Saving Trust examined why over 900 UK householders decided to adopt these technologies and why many do not. These surveys describe the niche market for microgeneration heat as largely confined to environmentally concerned, older, middleclass householders, mainly living in larger properties off the mains gas network. Although these pioneer adopters are generally highly satisfied, for microgeneration heat to expand beyond its market niche, several issues need to be addressed, including: price reductions and subsidies? independent information on the suitability, performance, payback and effective use of equipment? ‘one- stop’ support from consideration to operation? improved system compatibility with smaller properties and existing buildings and heating systems? and more userfriendly and informative controls.
Strategizing the Development of Alzheimer’s Therapeutics  [PDF]
Justin Davis, Robin Couch
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2014.33011
Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease is a complex, progressive condition with symptoms that do not reveal themselves until significant changes to neuronal morphology have already occurred. The delayed manifestation of cognitive decline makes determination of the true etiological origins difficult. As a result, identification of ideal drug targets becomes seemingly impossible. The existing treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease may temporarily suppress the rate of cognitive decline, but do little to slow or halt neuronal decay. While many believe that the current approaches to identifying a cure for the disease are too narrow-minded, focusing heavily on the physical manifestations of the diseased brain such as amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, this review asserts the status of Alzheimer’s research as rational and multi-faceted.
Development and delivery of bean varieties in Africa: The Pan-Africa bean research alliance (PABRA) model
R Buruchara, R Chirwa, L Sperling, C Mukankusi, JC Rubyogo, R Mutonhi, MM Abang
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has evolved rapidly in Africa and is steadily transforming from a traditional subsistence to a market-oriented crop, with major impacts on household incomes, food and nutritional security, and national economies. However, these benefits are yet to be felt in many parts of the continent because of multiple constraints that limit bean productivity. The Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) has been at the forefront of efforts to accelerate the transition of beans from a subsistence crop to a modern commodity in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a unique partnership model and the breeding and seed delivery strategies used by PABRA to reach millions of beneficiaries with improved bean varieties. The breeding strategy involved the paradigm shift from a monolithic approach where varieties were bred for yield or resistance to single environmental stresses, to a grain type-led and market-driven approach. The PABRA model comprises partnerships between and among Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model led to the release of over 200 varieties during 2003-2011, including beans with resistance to multiple constraints (biotic and abiotic), high iron and zinc content, and those for specific niche markets. PABRA reached 7.5 million households with seed of improved bean varieties during 2003– 2008 and is expected to reach an additional 14 million by 2013. From this undertaking, aspects that lend to policy recommendations to key stakeholders in the common beans value chain include: facilitation of access to credit; promotion of breeder and foundation seed production; easing of restrictions on the release of varieties; facilitation of collective marketing schemes; and deliberate policy frameworks to encourage the use of complementary integrated crop management practices.
Rural Adolescent Residential Treatment Facilities as Centers of Clinical Support and Excellence  [PDF]
Kenneth M. Coll, Robin Haas
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32013
Abstract: In rural western states (e.g., Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Utah) that are large geographically and small in population, it is unrealistic to expect to have comprehensive mental health and substance abuse professional support in most rural communities. One viable idea is for mature and distinguished treatment facilities in those geographic areas to expand their delivery system.
Occurrence and Severity of Angular Leaf Spot of Common Bean in Kenya as Influenced by Geographical Location, Altitude and Agroecological Zones
A.W. Mwang`ombe,I.N. Wagara,J.W. Kimenju,R.A. Buruchara
Plant Pathology Journal , 2007,
Abstract: A survey to determine the prevalence, incidence and severity of angular leaf spot of common bean was conducted in Embu, Kakamega, Kiambu, Machakos and Taita Taveta districts of Kenya. The districts were selected based on the intensity of bean production, spatial and ecological location. Angular leaf spot was prevalent in all the districts and was recorded in 89% of the farms visited. The disease was present in all the farms surveyed in Embu, Kakamega and Machakos districts. In Taita Taveta and Kiambu districts, disease prevalence was 80 and 65%, respectively. The disease was prevalent across the lower midland, lower highland and upper midland agroecological zones and altitude ranges of 963-2322 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Disease incidence and severity were high (mean values of 49.6 and 21.4%, respectively) and varied significantly (p≤0.05) among districts, farms, agroecological zones and different altitudes. Kakamega and Taita Taveta districts recorded the highest disease incidence and severity, respectively, whereas Embu district had the lowest incidence and severity. Bean fields in the altitude ranges of below 1200 m and 1600-2000 m.a.s.l. had the highest disease severity (33.8%) and incidence (52.9%), respectively, whereas areas above 2000 m recorded lower disease levels. Agroecological zone LM2 and UM4 had the highest levels of disease incidence and severity whereas zones LH1 and UM3 had the lowest levels, respectively. These results indicate that angular leaf spot is severe and highly prevalent in Kenya. The disease spans across all the agroecological zones and altitude ranges where beans are grown. Efforts should, therefore, be geared towards an integrated approach to manage the disease.
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