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Integer Programming Formulations for Maximum Lifetime Broadcasting Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Roberto Montemanni
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.212111
Abstract: Approaches based on integer linear programming have been recently proposed for topology optimization in wireless sensor networks. They are, however, based on over-theoretical, unrealistic models. Our aim is to show that it is possible to accommodate realistic models for energy consumption and communication protocols into integer linear programming. We analyze the maximum lifetime broadcasting topology problem and we present realistic models that are also shown to provide efficient and practical solving tools. We present a strategy to substantially speed up the convergence of the solving process of our algorithm. This strategy introduces a practical drawback, however, in the characteristics of the optimal solutions retrieved. A method to overcome this drawback is discussed. Computational experiments are reported.
Innovation in the Financial Sector: Persistence and Schumpeterian Hypotheses  [PDF]
Roberto Napoli
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2008.13023
Abstract: The paper analyses innovation features in the German financial sector. The first topic is persistence of innovation. Our research question is: Do innovators plan further innovation for the subsequent year? In addition, since the sector is so far poorly researched, very basic questions are investigated in the paper: the relationship between firm size and innovation (both linear and quadratic), as well as the impact of market structure on innovation (i.e. Schumpeterian and neo-Schumpeterian hypotheses). Finally, Suttons argument of R & D sunk costs is investigated as a possible explanation for persistence. Basing on the CIS IV survey, our empirical evidence is consistent with the results of similar researches carried out in different sectors.
Development, Poverty and Energy, in the 21st Century  [PDF]
Roberto Kozulj
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24054
Abstract: This work explores the area of global interdependences and the global context. In particular it deals with interdependences that seem to be absent from current literature but could be of great significance to identify the biggest challenges that the economy and the energy sector will have to face in the next two or three decades. In that sense, several issues are addressed: the dynamics of economic growth and its future; the relation between these dynamics and the foreseeable importance that urban poverty is to have at a global scale; the lack and inadequacy of information to approach crucial interdependences; and the need for a change in institutions and thinking habits to analyze the future. The approach focuses on the complex relationships that link urbanization, development phases, and technological changes dependent on products with shorter life cycles, discussing the impact of this kind of process over the genesis of urban poverty and over the structural modifications of economy. At the same time, a view on how these interdependences will become a serious and increasingly complex challenge for the energy sector and long term global sustainability is presented. The author also emphasizes the fact that these interdependences will become a serious and increasingly complex challenge that the energy sector will have to face if long term sustainability is to be attained.
Lethe@-Udr1 Passenger Sedan Final Proposed Configuration  [PDF]
Roberto Capata
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2011.14011
Abstract: For years the interest of the UDR1 researcher group has been focused on the development of a Hybrid Series (HS) vehicle, different from the standard one, using a Gas Turbine (GT) set as a thermal engine. The reason of this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimension, in comparison to a traditional In- ternal Combustion Engine (ICE). It’s not possible to use the GT engine directly for the vehicle traction, so the UDR1 HS configuration shows the GT set connected with the electric generator only. The result is that the traction is pure electric. Many efforts are spent in the definition of a generic scientific method to define the correct ratio HD (the Hybridization Degree) between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator which simultaneously guarantee the main life for the battery package and the ca- pacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission (about 15 km - 30 km) without lack of energy or stop. This paper reports all studies carried out and finally proposes a possible configuration (weight distribution, VMU logic control, GT dimensions and power rate, battery package characteristics and so on) for mid term solution in the Italian transport system.
Design Method Based on Normalized Functions for a Toroidal Inductor Applied to Power-Quality Evaluation  [PDF]
Roberto Baca
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.53020
Abstract:

The design method for a low-cost toroidal inductor is proposed as an alternative to power-quality evaluation. The method is based on well-known tools by the engineers in which is presented the relationships that exist between equivalent circuit and transfer function of a toroidal inductor. The proposed design method has been explained with normalized functions based on physical parameters of a toroidal inductor. This work presents the main arguments of the suggested methodology and as demonstration of the design method as function of normalized parameters, is developed a current-signal sensor which has been validated in the laboratory by the EN-50160-2-2 standard to evaluate the power quality in home use loads.

Dynamic Reflections on Constitutional Justice  [PDF]
Roberto Scarciglia
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.52012
Abstract:

This article attempts to propose critical reflections on “historical” models of Constitutional Review. The gradual depletion of the simplified classification system of constitutional review has been identified, by some scholars, as a failure of the bipolar American-European model. This means that it is necessary to rethink the approach to analysing constitutional review, in light of legal traditions, positive law within legal systems, and comparative methodologies. Consequently, judicial review could be studied according to the internal perspectives of the Supreme and Constitutional Courts’ decision-making processes, rather than externally observable legal characteristics. As of recently, legal studies have been converging with other sciences, such as cognitive science. They have been considering the relationship between consciousness and comparison, and even the field of cognitive errors in judgment, and the development of decisions taken by Courts.

Comparative Methodology and Pluralism in Legal Comparison in a Global Age  [PDF]
Roberto Scarciglia
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61006
Abstract: This article grew to look deeper into the relationship between different methodological tools in comparative law enquiries. There are several factors that currently affect these enquiries, such as the emergence of new spheres of normativity and transnational actors determining a new configuration of the relationship between centre and periphery. Different forms and visions of legal pluralism could characterise a cultural tradition and different ways, in which existing nations, which have a pluralistic legal system, interact. Furthermore, one might add the consideration that the presence of different forms of pluralism—a pluralism of pluralisms—implies a constant and urgent need to reconsider the adequacy of the methodologies in comparative law. Hence, we can use different approaches because there are different purposes that the comparison pursues. Though the horizontal comparison is certainly a widespread tendency for comparative analyses, from a methodological point of view, we need to consider the importance of forms of vertical comparison, both a top-down and bottom-up approach.
Reliable Energy Strategy Based on Incandescent Lighting  [PDF]
Roberto Baca
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.75017
Abstract: The artificial lighting used today in home and workplace have confirmed capability to induce skin problems, DNA damage, tumor formation as well as worsening arthritis, migraine and visual fatigue by longer exposure of ultraviolet radiation from discharge lighting sources. In this paper an ignition-angle controller (IAC) is used to demonstrate the reliability of incandescent lamps (ILs) in comparison with discharge lighting feed by switching-mode supplies. Analysis of harmonic of the line-current flow consumed by the ignition-angle controller (IAC) circuit has shown that production of distorted rms currents does not produce hazard, because single harmonic distortion (SHD) values are keeping lower to 50%. As energy policy, the modern artificial lighting must be replaced by economical, stable and nonhazardous incandescent lamps (ILs).
An Original Mid-Nineteenth Century Scientific Instrument in Italy: Vincenzo Vignola’s Induction Coil  [PDF]
Roberto Mantovani
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.42009
Abstract: It is well known that the induction coil was invented in the mid-1830s, but its most significant improvements were made between the late 1830s and 1851. During these years a lot of research was aimed at improving the functionality and effectiveness of the device. In Italy one of the very first attempts at improvement was made first by an instrument maker from Milan, Carlo Dell’Acqua, and secondly, by a priest from Verona, Vincenzo Vignola. In 1851, Vignola was awarded the gold medal from the Academy of Agriculture, Arts and Commerce of Verona for having introduced important and useful changes to the Callan electromotor. This event opened up the discovery of a number of very interesting, unpublished hand-written documents, as well as the discovery of the device itself, provided with an almost unique self-acting commutator-interrupter system. Today this apparatus is preserved at the Physics Museum “Antonio Maria Traversi” in Venice.
A Brief History of Legal Comparison: A Lesson from the Ancient to Post-Modern Times  [PDF]
Roberto Scarciglia
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.64026
Abstract: This essay offers a reconstruction of the historical evolution of legal comparison from the ancient to post-modern times. In particular, the author wishes to focus on the most important legal scholars and their contribution to the creation and development of comparative law and its methodology. Comparison of rules or constitutions has ancient origins and every age has left a legacy. For this reason, the Author has divided this essay into nine periods: the Ancient World, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, the Nineteenth Century, from the Congress in Paris, 1900, to the first half of the Twentieth Century; the second half of the Twentieth Century. To claim legal comparison as the result of its history is also to acknowledge that most of the today’s scholars have learned the lesson of the ancients masters of legal comparison.
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