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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11272 matches for " Roberta Teresa; "
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Non–Parametric Estimation of Mutual Information through the Entropy of the Linkage
Maria Teresa Giraudo,Laura Sacerdote,Roberta Sirovich
Entropy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/e15125154
Abstract: A new, non–parametric and binless estimator for the mutual information of a d–dimensional random vector is proposed. First of all, an equation that links the mutual information to the entropy of a suitable random vector with uniformly distributed components is deduced. When d = 2 this equation reduces to the well known connection between mutual information and entropy of the copula function associated to the original random variables. Hence, the problem of estimating the mutual information of the original random vector is reduced to the estimation of the entropy of a random vector obtained through a multidimensional transformation. The estimator we propose is a two–step method: first estimate the transformation and obtain the transformed sample, then estimate its entropy. The properties of the new estimator are discussed through simulation examples and its performances are compared to those of the best estimators in the literature. The precision of the estimator converges to values of the same order of magnitude of the best estimator tested. However, the new estimator is unbiased even for larger dimensions and smaller sample sizes, while the other tested estimators show a bias in these cases.
Flavanols and Platelet Reactivity
Debra A. Pearson,Roberta R. Holt,Dietrich Rein,Teresa Paglieroni,Harold H. Schmitz,Carl L. Keen
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2005, DOI: 10.1080/10446670410001722140
Abstract: Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods, including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with the use of low dose (81 mg) aspirin. These data, coupled with information from other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of pathways.
Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy
Maria Teresa Montagna,Christian Napoli,Osvalda De Giglio,Roberta Iatta,Giovanna Barbuti
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9122614
Abstract: A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.
Preparation, Characterization and Efficacy Evaluation of Synthetic Biocompatible Polymers Linking Natural Antioxidants
Sonia Trombino,Roberta Cassano,Teresa Ferrarelli,Sonia Leta,Francesco Puoci,Nevio Picci
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules171112734
Abstract: The purpose of this work was the synthesis, characterization and efficacy evaluation of new biocompatible antioxidant polymers linking trans-ferulic acid or a-lipoic acid. In particular, ferulic or lipoic acid were introduced in the preformed polymeric backbone. The new antioxidant biopolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The degree of functionalization (moles of antioxidant per gram of polymer) was determined by the Gaur-Gupta method for free amino group determination and by the Folin method for the phenolic groups. Their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation were estimated in rat liver microsomal membranes induced in vitro by tert-BOOH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide), as a source of free radicals. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging effect was also evaluated. The obtained systems, with different solubility, showed strong antioxidant and antiradical activities, suggesting potential use as packaging materials for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the synthesized polymers was also evaluated on Caco-2 cell cultures in order to verify their biocompatibility when exposed to an absorptive epithelial cell line.
Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities
Christian Napoli, Fabrizio Fasano, Roberta Iatta, Giovanna Barbuti, Teresa Cuna, Maria Montagna
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-660
Abstract: During the period January 2000 - December 2009 the environmental surveillance was carried out by water sampling of 129 health care facilities (73 public and 56 private hospitals) and 533 buildings within the community (63 private apartments, 305 hotels, 19 offices, 4 churches, 116 gyms, 3 swimming pools and 23 schools). Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the Italian Guidelines. From January 2005, all facilities were subject to risk analysis through the use of a standardized report; the results were classified as good (G), medium (M) and bad (B). As well, all the clinical surveillance forms for legionellosis, which must be compiled by physicians and sent to the Regional Centre for Epidemiology (OER), were analyzed.Legionella spp. was found in 102 (79.1%) health care facilities and in 238 (44.7%) community buildings. The percentages for the contamination levels < 1,000, 1,000-10,000, > 10,000 cfu/L were respectively 33.1%, 53.4% and 13.5% for samples from health care facilities and 33.5%, 43.3% and 23.2% for samples from the community. Both in hospital and community environments, Legionella pneumophila serogroup (L. pn sg) 2-14 was the most frequently isolate (respectively 54.8% and 40.8% of positive samples), followed by L. pn sg 1 (respectively 31.3% and 33%). The study showed a significant association between M or B score at the risk analysis and Legionella spp. positive microbiological test results (p < 0.001). From clinical surveillance, during the period January 2001 - August 2009, 97 cases of legionellosis were reported to the OER: 88 of community origin and 9 nosocomial. The most frequent symptoms were: fever (93.8%), cough (70.1%), dyspnea (58.8%), shivering (56.7%). Radiological evidence of pneumonia was reported in 68%. The laboratory diagnostic methods used were: urinary antigen (54.3%), single antibody titer (19.8%), only seroconversion (11.1%), other diagnostic methods (14.8%).Our experience suggests that risk analysis
LDL-Induced Impairment of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Repair Function Is Reversed by HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition
Teresa Padró, Roberta Lugano, Maisa García-Arguinzonis, Lina Badimon
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038935
Abstract: Growing human atherosclerotic plaques show a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) becoming soft and vulnerable. Lipid loaded-VSMC show impaired vascular repair function and motility due to changes in cytoskeleton proteins involved in cell-migration. Clinical benefits of statins reducing coronary events have been related to repopulation of vulnerable plaques with VSMC. Here, we investigated whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition with rosuvastatin can reverse the effects induced by atherogenic concentrations of LDL either in the native (nLDL) form or modified by aggregation (agLDL) on human VSMC motility. Using a model of wound repair, we showed that treatment of human coronary VSMC with rosuvastatin significantly prevented (and reversed) the inhibitory effect of nLDL and agLDL in the repair of the cell depleted areas. In addition, rosuvastatin significantly abolished the agLDL-induced dephosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain as demonstrated by 2DE-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Besides, confocal microscopy showed that rosuvastatin enhances actin-cytoskeleton reorganization during lipid-loaded-VSMC attachment and spreading. The effects of rosuvastatin on actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration were dependent on ROCK-signalling. Furthermore, rosuvastatin caused a significant increase in RhoA-GTP in the cytosol of VSMC. Taken together, our study demonstrated that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase restores the migratory capacity and repair function of VSMC that is impaired by native and aggregated LDL. This mechanism may contribute to the stabilization of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques afforded by statins.
Systemic Administration of Substance P Recovers Beta Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Rat: Involvement of Kv Potassium Channels
Patrizia Campolongo, Patrizia Ratano, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Fulvio Florenzano, Stefania Lucia Nori, Roberta Marolda, Maura Palmery, Anna Maria Rinaldi, Cristina Zona, Roberta Possenti, Pietro Calissano, Cinzia Severini
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078036
Abstract: Reduced levels of Substance P (SP), an endogenous neuropeptide endowed with neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties, have been found in brain and spinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Potassium (K+) channel dysfunction is implicated in AD development and the amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits could be considered a significant step in Aβ brain toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SP could reduce, in vivo, Aβ-induced overexpression of Kv subunits. Rats were intracerebroventricularly infused with amyloid-β 25–35 (Aβ25–35, 20 μg) peptide. SP (50 μg/Kg, i.p.) was daily administered, for 7 days starting from the day of the surgery. Here we demonstrate that the Aβ infused rats showed impairment in cognitive performances in the Morris water maze task 4 weeks after Aβ25–35 infusion and that this impairing effect was prevented by SP administration. Kv1.4, Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 subunit levels were quantified in hippocampus and in cerebral cortex by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Interestingly, SP reduced Kv1.4 levels overexpressed by Aβ, both in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for a neuroprotective activity of systemic administration of SP in a rat model of AD and suggest a possible mechanism underlying this effect.
Qualidade de tomate 'Débora' minimamente processado armazenado em dois tipos de embalagens
Miguel, Ana Carolina A;Dias, Jo?o Ricardo PS;Spoto, Marta Helena F;Rizzo-Benato, Roberta Teresa;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362007000400017
Abstract: the quality of minimally processed tomatoes cv. débora conditioned in two types of packages was evaluated. the fruits were washed and sanitized with a 200 mg l-1 sodium hypochlorite solution. the pulp was cut in cubes (1 cm3), rinsed with a 20 mg l-1 sodium hypochlorite solution, packed in polypropylene (pp) bags or polyethylene terephthalate (pet) cups and stored at 5oc for eight days. during this period samples were daily retired to evaluate the loss of fresh mass, internal color, texture, ph, contents of soluble solids (ss), titratable acidity (ta) and ascorbic acid. the soluble solids, titratable acidity, ss/ta ratio and ph were significantly affected by the packing type. the cubes packed in cups showed greater content of ss and lower of ta, resulting in a better ratio when compared to the cubes packed in bags. the polyethylene terephthalate (pet) cups were the best package for tomatoes cut in cubes.
Diabetes mellitus associado à muta??o mitocondrial A3243G: freqüência e caracteriza??o clínica
Salles, Jo?o Eduardo N.;Kalinin, Larissa Bresgunov;Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G.;Kasamatsu, Teresa;Moisés, Regina S.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302007000400009
Abstract: maternal inherited diabetes and deafness (midd) has been related to an a to g transition in the mitochondrial rna leu (uur) at base pair 3243. the prevalence of midd in the diabetes population ranges between 0.5-3.0% depending on the ethnic background. aim: to examine the frequency and clinical features of diabetes associated with this mutation in brazilian patients with glucose intolerance. methods: the study population comprised: 78 type 1 diabetic subjects (group i), 148 patients with type 2 diabetes (group ii), 15 patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes and hearing loss (group iii) and 492 japanese brazilians with varying degrees of glucose intolerance. dna was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes and the a3243g mutation was determined by pcr amplification and apa 1 digestion. in some individuals dna was also extracted from buccal mucosa and hair follicles. the 3243 bp mutation was found in three individuals, all from group iii, resulting in a prevalence of 0.4%. these subjects had an early age of diagnosis of diabetes, low or normal body mass index and requirement of insulin therapy. in conclusion midd is rare in our population and should be investigate in patients with diabetes and deafness.
Efecto de la nueva regulación antitabaco en Italia
Rodríguez,Teresa; Gallus,Silvano; Chatenoud,Liliane; Zuccaro,Piergiorgio; Colombo,Paolo; Apolone,Giovanni; Pacifici,Roberta; Garattini,Silvio; La Vecchia,Carlo;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000700016
Abstract: objetive: a population-based survey was conducted to know the attitudes towards new italian smoke-free regulations and its impact on tobacco consumption. material and methods: we considered 3 114 subjects aged 15 or over, representative of the general adult italian population. results: once smoke-free policies were introduced, support for them tended to increase. smoke-free policies accounted for 8% decrease in cigarette consumption in the short run. tobacco bans were almost universally accepted, and do not seem to unfavourably affect the business of restaurants or cafes. conclusions: the results of our study, show the advantages of smoke-free legislations, which may have major public health implications.
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