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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27723 matches for " Robert Vassallo-Agius "
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Fatty Acids Profile, Atherogenic (IA) and Thrombogenic (IT) Health Lipid Indices, of Raw Roe of Blue Fin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) and Their Salted Product “Bottarga”  [PDF]
Manuela A. Garaffo, Robert Vassallo-Agius, Yoannis Nengas, Elvira Lembo, Rossana Rando, Roberta Maisano, Giacomo Dugo, Daniele Giuffrida
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27101
Abstract: The fatty acids composition and the related health lipid indices (IA, atherogenic and IT thrombogenic) of Blue Fin Tuna’s (Thunnus thynnus L.) raw roe and their cured product bottarga, both considered a delicacy, were studied. The fatty acid (FA) composition of tuna’s roe and bottarga showed a relevant proportion (40.87% and 36.62% respectively) of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a prevalence of the n – 3 series, that showed values almost ten folds higher than those of n – 6 fatty acids, in both classes of analyzed samples. The IA and IT indices resulted comparable in tuna’s roe and in the bottarga samples respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the fatty acids composition and the related lipid health indices in tuna’s raw roe and in their cured product “bottarga”.
Pulmonary mantle cell lymphoma: a rare manifestation of an uncommon condition
Zachary S. DePew,Robert Vassallo
Rare Tumors , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/rt.2012.e11
Abstract: Herein we describe the case of a 64-year old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma found to have evidence of pulmonary parenchymal involvement by recurrence of his lymphoma. While lung involvement is not necessarily uncommon with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas as a group, it is very rare for mantle cell lymphoma to involve the lung parenchyma. In addition, the radiographic manifestation of his pulmonary lymphoma as a discrete FDG-avid ground-glass lesion on chest imaging was also distinctly uncommon for pulmonary lymphoma which classically appears in one of three patterns: scattered ill-defined nodules, a bronchovascular/lymphangitic process, or pneumonic/alveolar consolidation effectively indistinguishable from bacterial pneumonia. Due to significant underlying lung disease our patient was not a candidate for high-dose conditioning and autologous stem cell transplantation. He was ultimately treated with rituximab and cladribine therapy and had early signs of clinical response at last correspondence.
Macrophage sequestration of HIV-1 enhances homeostatic-related systems in promoting viral spread and replication  [PDF]
Lawrence Agius
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A1001

Decisive modulatory systems of compromise and systems of dynamic turnover in lymphoid cells and macrophages are activated by repeated bursts of viremia and as promotional schemes of representation of subsequent spread and replication of HIV-1. In such operative systems of micro-environmental conditioning and reconditioning, a significant mechanism towards the turnover of specific cell-types occurs within context of sequestration within macrophages and circulating monocytes. Dendritic cells in germinal follicles and within specific organs such as the Langerhans cells of the skin are allied to dysfunctionality of such cellular subtypes as exemplified by the resident microglia of the central nervous system. Decisive perturbation in cell-type number and in dysfunctional activation indicate an exquisite modulatory role for HIV-1 in promoting homeostatic-related mechanisms within organs and tissues towards utilization in terms of viral dynamics and cytokine operability. In such manner, HIV-1 replication is itself a system of promotion in spread of viruses across cell-type and host cell specificities that tend to characterize and recharacterize systems of cytokine network operability in particular.

HIV-1 Primarily Targets the Innate Immune System and Only Secondarily Modulates Adaptive Immune Cell Depletion  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23029
Abstract: Persistence of HIV-1 infection allows for permissive microenvironmental conditioning in terms of contextual innate immune participation. The progression of host cell injury constitutes an additional parametric formulation in self-amplifying modulation of the adaptive immune response in a manner that inclusively promotes the emergence of a final stage of AIDS that is both depletive and permissive for opportunistic infections and various forms of neoplasia. It is within contextual indices of promotion of depleted T-helper lymphocytes and of augmented viremic loads that manifestations of classic lesions emerge as the AIDS phenomenon. It is further to be realized that an apoptotic response of multiple cell subtypes including T-lymphocytes includes host-cell participation within formulated settings of further persistence of the retroviral infection. An all-inclusive phenomenon of dendritic cell-lymphocyte synapse formulation corresponds to the establishment of HIV-1 infection that specifically conditions all subsequent stages in depletion of the injured host cells regardless of the dynamics or kinetics of the retroviral replicative infectious process itself.
Distinctive parameters of action of stem cells and modulatory microenvironmental microcirculation in gliomagenesis  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2013.31001

Definition of the malignant transformation event is central to a distinction between neural stem cells and cancer stem cells. In such manner, the descriptive analysis of various tumors such as gliomas would allow for the distinction of genetic injury and probably epigenetic events that transform gene transcription pathways. Hypoxia is a major conditioning influence acting on stem cell niche microenvironments that evolve in terms particularly of micro-vascular dynamics. The incremental involvement of entire fields of cancerization allows for the establishment of permissive conditions of repetitive nature and within the contextual involvement of multiple clones of injured cells that condition, in turn, the stem cell niche. In view of the establishment of progressive malignant change, it is significant to view the cancerization as an integral involvement of both sequential and concurrent events in defining the roles of stem cells and cancer stem cells in terms of a primal process of dedifferentiation beyond simple markers of morphologic transformation.

Operative sequentiality in tumor differentiation and progression as protein molecular structure and sequence context in modulating alternative splicing events  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.32010

This review article discusses dimensional reconstruction of alternative splicing that not only affects primarily the distributional dimensions of isoforms of various protein species but especially influences the nature of interactivity events between various protein species and also the structure of the given protein molecules. In such terms, disorders of differentiation of individual tumors and of tumor types and subtypes would correlate with distinctive dimensions of expression of a limited number of genes in various modes of expressed selectivity programs. In particular, the differentiation programs of normal tissues would correlate with combinatorial systems of splicing factors and of auxiliary factors in the development of patterns of gene expression. The significance of mis-splicing events is consonant with the wide range of phenotypic expression of neoplastic lesions and in the great variety of differentiation patterns and also of the variable degrees of differentiation of various components of a given neoplasm. The structure of given protein isoforms resulting from alternative splicing correlate with the sequence context of exons in the enhancement or inhibition of splicing events and would also influence pathobiologic behavior patterns of given neoplastic lesions. The development of abnormal cell signalling pathways and of interactivity patterns in a combinatorial way would directly influence the stability and trafficking dynamics of given protein molecular species in inducing an abundance of protein isoform production. Series of multi-component systems ranging from receptivity to consequential pathways of development of differential phenotype would allow for a high degree of modulatory effect within systems implicating in particular the interactions of individual tumor cells with each other and with the matrix components. It is within the context of constitutive versus alternative splicing events that this review article proposes that proportional recreation of differentiation pathways promotes a self-progression of the pathobiologic processes of a given neoplastic lesion.

Cervical Subcutaneous Emphysema; Sequelae from Occult Perforation of Sigmoid Diverticulum  [PDF]
Mohammed Choudhury, Michael Vassallo
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2010.12015
Abstract: Background: An elderly lady presented with dyspnoea due to congestive cardiac failure. She was subsequently noted to have cervi-cal subcutaneous emphysema. Post mortem identified an occult perforation of a sigmoid diverticulum. Cervical subcutaneous em-physema is a recognised complication of gastrointestinal perforation; however, it is normally associated with upper gastrointestinal pathology, procedure related or sequel of existing disease. Summary: A perforated sigmoid diverticulum is a very rare cause of cer-vical subcutaneous emphysema. In this patient, signs and symptoms of peritonism were also late in onset and the location of the per-foration was not found despite high resolution imaging being used.
Arctia villica (Linnaeus, 1758), a new Arctiidae for the Maltese Islands (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)
J. Agius
SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología , 2008,
Abstract: El género Arctia Schrank, 1802 y también Arctia villica (Linnaeus, 1758) se cita por la primera vez para Malta. Se incluyen datos sobre su distribución, hábitat del adulto y la planta nutricia de la larva. Se propone un nombre maltés para esta nueva cita.
Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study
Robert Vassallo, Paula R Walters, Jeffrey Lamont, Theodore J Kottom, Eunhee S Yi, Andrew H Limper
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-45
Abstract: The extent of dendritic cell infiltration in COPD tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemical localization of CD83+ cells (marker of matured myeloid dendritic cells), and CD1a+ cells (Langerhans cells). The extent of tissue infiltration with Langerhans cells was also determined by the relative expression of the CD207 gene in COPD versus control tissues. To determine mechanisms by which dendritic cells accumulate in COPD, complimentary studies were conducted using monocyte-derived human dendritic cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and dendritic cells extracted from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.In human COPD lung tissue, we detected a significant increase in the total number of CD83+ cells, and significantly higher amounts of CD207 mRNA when compared with control tissue. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to CSE (0.1-2%) exhibited enhanced survival in vitro when compared with control dendritic cells. Murine dendritic cells extracted from mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks, also demonstrated enhanced survival compared to dendritic cells extracted from control mice. Acute exposure of human dendritic cells to CSE induced the cellular pro-survival proteins heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and B cell lymphoma leukemia-x(L) (Bcl-xL), predominantly through oxidative stress. Although activated human dendritic cells conditioned with CSE expressed diminished migratory CCR7 expression, their migration towards the CCR7 ligand CCL21 was not impaired.These data indicate that COPD is associated with increased numbers of cells bearing markers associated with Langerhans cells and mature dendritic cells, and that cigarette smoke promotes survival signals and augments survival of dendritic cells. Although CSE suppressed dendritic cell CCR7 expression, migration towards a CCR7 ligand was not diminished, suggesting that reduced CCR7-dependent migration is unlikely to be an important mechanism for dendritic cell retention in the lungs
Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis
Harpreet S Suri, Eunhee S Yi, Gregorz S Nowakowski, Robert Vassallo
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-16
Abstract: Supported by HL096829-01 and funding from the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute.The histiocytic disorders are rare diseases characterized by abnormal infiltration of certain organs by cells derived from monocyte/macrophage or dendritic cell lineage [1]. Langerhans Cell Histocytosis (LCH) is a specific type of histocytic syndrome characterized by infiltration of tissues with a specific dendritic cell, the Langerhans cell [1]. Formally known as histocytosis × (or eosinophilic granuloma), it is now apparent that the "X" cells are Langerhans cells, which may be distinguished from other dendritic cells by the presence of intracellular Birbeck granules and surface expression of the CD1a receptor [2,3]. Although it is generally agreed that pathologic Langerhans cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of LCH, the origins of these cells, their specific roles in disease development and progression remain incompletely characterized. LCH may affect an isolated organ (formerly referred to as eosinophilic granuloma) or may be a multisystemic illness involving several sites (formerly referred to as Hand-Shuller-Christian or Letterer-Siwe disease)[4]. Pulmonary involvement in LCH (which will be referred to as PLCH) is more common in adults and may be the sole organ involved, or may be part of multi system disease [5].PLCH is a rare disease which occurs almost exclusively in smokers [5,6]. The estimated incidence of LCH is 4-9 cases per million/year in children [7,8]. Precise data regarding prevalence are not available, but a large series of hundreds of patients undergoing surgical lung biopsies for diffuse lung disease reported PLCH in 4-5% of all diffuse lung disease biopsies [9]. This is probably an under estimation as many patients may never undergo surgical lung biopsy for diagnosis. PLCH predominantly affects young adults between the ages of 20 to 40 years [5]. There does not appear to be a gender predilection [5,10-12]. Although most published series in the En
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