oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 7 )

2018 ( 74 )

2017 ( 63 )

2016 ( 93 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27390 matches for " Robert Scragg "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /27390
Display every page Item
Dietary Intakes by Different Markers of Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Patricia A. Metcalf, Robert R. K. Scragg, Rod T. Jackson
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611147
Abstract: Previous studies show that diet quality varies by socioeconomic gradient. We compared the influence of individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics on food choice behavior and dietary nutrient intakes in a cross-sectional survey. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Participants comprised 4007 people (1915 men, 2092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Socioeconomic measures included the area-based deprivation NZDep2001, gross household income, education level and the occupation-based New Zealand Socioeconomic Index (NZSEI96). Results: Nutrients expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intakes and adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity, showed that intakes of cholesterol were higher in the lower income groups, and fibre, alcohol and calcium were lower compared to the highest income group. Similarly adjusted nutrients expressed as their contribution to total energy intakes showed lower alcohol intakes in the lower NZDep2001 classes compared to the highest NZDep2001 class. Lower fruit, cheese, wine, and spirit servings were found in both the lower income and NZDep2001 groups. Lower vegetables, milk and cereal servings were found in the lowest income group compared with the highest. Higher chicken, eggs and bread servings were found in the lowest NZDep2001 group compared to the highest NZDep2001 group. Few statistically significant associations were observed with the NZSEI96 or education. Conclusion: Income was more strongly associated with nutrient intakes and NZDep2001 with food group selections. Lower fruit, cheese, wine and spirit servings in the lower SES strata showed independent associations with income and NZDep2001. However, NZDep2001 and income appear to be measuring different elements of dietary intakes and food group servings, with income being associated with lower vegetable, milk and cereal servings, and increased dietary cholesterol and lower fibre, and calcium intakes and NZDep2001 with increased chicken, eggs and bread servings. More in depth, research into area-level determinants of diet is warranted.
What effect do attempts to lose weight have on the observed relationship between nutrition behaviors and body mass index among adolescents?
Jennifer Utter, Robert Scragg, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, David Schaaf
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-40
Abstract: Data were drawn from the baseline measurements of the Pacific OPIC (Obesity Prevention In Communities). Participants included approximately 3500 high school students in New Zealand. Students in the sample primarily identified as a Pacific Island ethnicity (57%) and the mean age for participants was 14.8 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about nutrition and physical activity patterns and were weighed and measured for height.In our sample, 57% of students were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence among Pacific Island students (71%). Approximately 50% of students were currently trying to lose weight, and this was more common among females, Pacific Island students and overweight/obese students. Examination of the nutritional correlates of BMI in the total population found inverse relationships between BMI and consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods and positive relationships between BMI and eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables a day (all significant after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity). For example, students who drank the most soft drinks or ate fruit and vegetables infrequently had the lowest mean BMI. Students' attempts to change their weight significantly moderated the relationships between most nutritional behaviors and BMI. In most cases, among students not trying to change their weight, expected relationships were observed; among students trying to lose weight, unexpected or no relationships were observed.Our findings suggest that among this population of predominately overweight students, solely relying on cross-sectional findings between nutrition behaviours and BMI would misinform intervention strategies. It appears that many students are already taking appropriate steps to reduce their weight. Intervention efforts should now move beyond education-based strategies to environmental changes that support students in adopting healthier nutrition practices.In New Zealand, approximately one third of children aged 5–14 years are overw
Relationships between frequency of family meals, BMI and nutritional aspects of the home food environment among New Zealand adolescents
Jennifer Utter, Robert Scragg, David Schaaf, Cliona Ni Mhurchu
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-50
Abstract: Data were collected during baseline measurements of the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities study. In total, 3245 ethnically diverse students completed a questionnaire about their nutrition behaviors and were weighed and measured for height.In total, 42% of adolescents ate a family meal on all of the previous five school nights. Frequency of family meals was modestly associated with BMI in bivariate analysis (p = 0.045), but lost significance when demographic characteristics were included in the model. Frequency of family meals was associated with many positive aspects of home food environment and positive nutrition behaviors, including parental support for healthy eating, limits on television use, having fruit available at home, consuming five fruits and vegetables a day, eating breakfast, and bringing lunch from home. Surprisingly, no relationships were observed between frequency of family meals and accessibility and consumption of many high fat/high sugar foods.Our findings suggest that the positive effect of family meals may reflect an overall positive home food environment. Families who have meals together have more healthful foods available at home and support their child in eating healthfully. There were no relationships between family meals and high fat/high sugar foods; this suggest that while families may prioritize eating together, messages about limiting the availability and consumption of these snack foods are not getting through.The family and home environment plays an important role in adolescent nutrition as it has been estimated that adolescents consume about 60% of their daily energy from foods sourced at home [1]. Accessibility of healthy and unhealthy foods at home, parental modelling of healthy eating, family eating patterns and work demands all influence the eating practices of children and families [2,3]. Family meals are one aspect of the home environment associated with the overall well-being of adolescents. Frequency of family meals h
Does Vitamin D Sufficiency Equate to a Single Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level or Are Different Levels Required for Non-Skeletal Diseases?
Simon Spedding,Simon Vanlint,Howard Morris,Robert Scragg
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5125127
Abstract: Objective: Clarify the concept of vitamin D sufficiency, the relationship between efficacy and vitamin D status and the role of Vitamin D supplementation in the management of non-skeletal diseases. We outline reasons for anticipating different serum vitamin D levels are required for different diseases. Method: Review the literature for evidence of efficacy of supplementation and minimum effective 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels in non-skeletal disease. Results: Evidence of efficacy of vitamin supplementation is graded according to levels of evidence. Minimum effective serum 25-OHD levels are lower for skeletal disease, e.g., rickets (25 nmol/L), osteoporosis and fractures (50 nmol/L), than for premature mortality (75 nmol/L) or non-skeletal diseases, e.g., depression (75 nmol/L), diabetes and cardiovascular disease (80 nmol/L), falls and respiratory infections (95 nmol/L) and cancer (100 nmol/L). Conclusions: Evidence for the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation at serum 25-OHD levels ranging from 25 to 100 nmol/L has been obtained from trials with vitamin D interventions that change vitamin D status by increasing serum 25-OHD to a level consistent with sufficiency for that disease. This evidence supports the hypothesis that just as vitamin D metabolism is tissue dependent, so the serum levels of 25-OHD signifying deficiency or sufficiency are disease dependent.
Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day
Maea Hohepa, Robert Scragg, Grant Schofield, Gregory S Kolt, David Schaaf
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-54
Abstract: A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471) were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11) or Senior (Years 12 & 13) students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s), friend(s), sibling(s)/cousin(s), and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals.Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60) and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69) were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57) was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92). Irrespective of the activity examined, no significant difference was noted for students receiving high support from two parents than students reporting high support from their sole parent in a single parent family.The importance of encouragement from parents, siblings, friends, and schools on physical activity is dependant on the time-specific activity examined. It is clear that proximal social networks need to be considered during the development of physical activity promotion strategies.The high school years is a period of life consistently associated with a subsidence in physical activity l
On the epidemiology of influenza: reply to Radonovich et al
John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg, Edward Giovannucci
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-121
Abstract: To the Editor:We thank Radonovich et al [1] for commenting on our paper [2], in which we attempted to use the epidemiology of vitamin D to clarify the manifold mysteries surrounding the epidemiology of influenza. Since our publication, Ginde et al [3] have produced additional evidence in support of our theories. They studied the relationship between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and recent upper respiratory tract infections (URI) in 18,883 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination. Compared to individuals with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels of > 30 ng/ml, those with levels < 10 ng/ml had 55% higher odds of a recent URI. Furthermore, very recent evidence indicates 25(OH)D levels of even 30 ng/ml often signify chronic substrate starvation [4], thus the full antimicrobial properties of vitamin D may be understated.Radonovich et al did not supply any evidence against the main hypotheses proposed in our paper, only to a speculation we made about ultraviolet germicidal air irradiation. They take factual issue with our theory that the ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) lamps, used in the past to sterilize the upper air in some VA hospitals, may have exerted some, or most, of their effects – not by sanitizing air – but by increasing 25(OH)D levels.Radonovich et al assert there was no patient exposure from UVC germicidal lamps, as they were installed to irradiate only the upper air and never shone directly on patients, thus "minimizing UV exposure in the occupied space below." Careful inspection of such an arrangement, in a 1957 Baltimore VA hospital, is illuminating [5]. Photographs show lights that seemed to shine indirectly on patients, apparently 24 hours per day, seven days a week. Depending on the characteristics of the reflective surfaces, it seems possible – even likely from the photographs – that a small amount of UVC was reflected downward toward the patients.Radonovich et al then assert that even if some UVC reflected downward, it c
On the epidemiology of influenza
John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg, Edward Giovannucci
Virology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-5-29
Abstract: It is useful, at times, to question our assumptions. Arguably, the most universally accepted assumption about influenza is that it is a highly infectious virus spread by the sick. Edgar Hope-Simpson not only questioned that assumption, he went much further. Realizing that solar radiation has profound effects on influenza, he added an unidentified "seasonal stimulus" to the heart of his radical epidemiological model [1]. Unfortunately, the mechanism of action of the "seasonal stimulus" eluded him in life and his theory languished. Nevertheless, he parsimoniously used latent asymptomatic infectors and an unidentified "season stimulus" to fully or partially explain seven epidemiological conundrums [2].1. Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics?2. Why are the epidemics so explosive?3. Why do epidemics end so abruptly?4. What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitudes?5. Why is the serial interval obscure?6. Why is the secondary attack rate so low?7. Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport?An eighth conundrum – one not addressed by Hope-Simpson – is the surprising percentage of seronegative volunteers who either escape infection or develop only minor illness after being experimentally inoculated with a novel influenza virus. The percentage of subjects sickened by iatrogenic aerosol inoculation of influenza virus is less than 50% [3], although such experiments depend on the dose of virus used. Only three of eight subjects without pre-existing antibodies developed illness after aerosol inhalation of A2/Bethesda/10/63 [4]. Intranasal administration of various wild viruses to sero-negative volunteers only resulted in constitutional symptoms 60% of the time; inoculation with Fort Dix Swine virus (H1N1) – a virus thought to be similar to the 1918 virus – in six sero-negative volunteers failed to produce any serious illness, with one vo
Characterisation of silent and active genes for a variable large protein of Borrelia recurrentis
Vidal Vincent,Cutler Sally,Scragg Ian G,Wright David JM
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2002,
Abstract: Background We report the characterisation of the variable large protein (vlp) gene expressed by clinical isolate A1 of Borrelia recurrentis; the agent of the life-threatening disease louse-borne relapsing fever. Methods The major vlp protein of this isolate was characterised and a DNA probe created. Use of this together with standard molecular methods was used to determine the location of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene in both this and other isolates. Results This isolate was found to carry silent and expressed copies of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene on plasmids of 54 kbp and 24 kbp respectively, whereas a different isolate, A17, had only the silent vlp1B. recurrentis A17 on a 54 kbp plasmid. Silent and expressed vlp1 have identical mature protein coding regions but have different 5' regions, both containing different potential lipoprotein leader sequences. Only one form of vlp1 is transcribed in the A1 isolate of B. recurrentis, yet both 5' upstream sequences of this vlp1 gene possess features of bacterial promoters. Conclusion Taken together these results suggest that antigenic variation in B. recurrentis may result from recombination of variable large and small protein genes at the junction between lipoprotein leader sequence and mature protein coding region. However, this hypothetical model needs to be validated by further identification of expressed and silent variant protein genes in other B. recurrentis isolates.
Characterisation of silent and active genes for a variable large protein of Borrelia recurrentis
Vincent Vidal, Sally Cutler, Ian G Scragg, David JM Wright, Dominic Kwiatkowski
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-2-25
Abstract: The major vlp protein of this isolate was characterised and a DNA probe created. Use of this together with standard molecular methods was used to determine the location of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene in both this and other isolates.This isolate was found to carry silent and expressed copies of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene on plasmids of 54 kbp and 24 kbp respectively, whereas a different isolate, A17, had only the silent vlp1B. recurrentis A17 on a 54 kbp plasmid. Silent and expressed vlp1 have identical mature protein coding regions but have different 5' regions, both containing different potential lipoprotein leader sequences. Only one form of vlp1 is transcribed in the A1 isolate of B. recurrentis, yet both 5' upstream sequences of this vlp1 gene possess features of bacterial promoters.Taken together these results suggest that antigenic variation in B. recurrentis may result from recombination of variable large and small protein genes at the junction between lipoprotein leader sequence and mature protein coding region. However, this hypothetical model needs to be validated by further identification of expressed and silent variant protein genes in other B. recurrentis isolates.Expression of a variant surface antigen is utilised by a wide variety of pathogenic micro-organisms to evade the immune defences of the host, thereby prolonging the duration of infection and increasing the likelihood of transmission. In the early part of the last century microbiologists first observed this process in relapsing fever caused by Borreliae as the spirochaetes recovered from each relapse differed serologically. The classical molecular description of this phenomenon comes from studies of Borrelia hermsii, an aetiologic agent of tick-borne relapsing fever. Variable major proteins are the dominant surface antigen [1], which are involved in evasion of the host's immune system as Borreliae emerging at each relapse express a different antigenic form [2]. Detailed molecular analysi
Introduction to a Requirements Engineering Framework for Aeronautics  [PDF]
Robert Abo
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39105
Abstract: This paper introduces a framework to produce and to manage quality requirements of embedded aeronautical systems, called the ‘Requirements Engineering Framework’ (REF). It aims at making the management of the requirement lifecycle easier, from the specification of the purchaser’s needs, to their implementation in the final products, and also their verification, while controlling costs. REF is based on the main standards of aeronautics, in particular RTCA DO-254, and RTCA DO-178B standards. An implementation of REF, using the IBM Rational DOORS and IBM Rational Change tools, is also presented in this paper.
Page 1 /27390
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.