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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 318761 matches for " Robert J Heuermann "
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Cutaneous nociception evoked by 15-delta PGJ2 via activation of ion channel TRPA1
Lillian Cruz-Orengo, Ajay Dhaka, Robert J Heuermann, Timothy J Young, Michael C Montana, Eric J Cavanaugh, Donghee Kim, Gina M Story
Molecular Pain , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-4-30
Abstract: Our search for endogenous chemical activators utilizing a bioactive lipid library screen identified a cyclopentane PGD2 metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), as a TRPA1 agonist. Similar to CA and AITC, this electrophilic molecule is known to modify cysteines of cellular target proteins. Electophysiological recordings verified that 15d-PGJ2 specifically activates TRPA1 and not TRPV1 or TRPM8 (thermoTRPs also enriched in DRG). Accordingly, we identified a population of mouse DRG neurons responsive to 15d-PGJ2 and AITC that is absent in cultures derived from TRPA1 knockout mice. The irritant molecules that activate TRPA1 evoke nociceptive responses. However, 15d-PGJ2 has not been correlated with painful sensations; rather, it is considered to mediate anti-inflammatory processes via binding to the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Our in vivo studies revealed that 15d-PGJ2 induced acute nociceptive responses when administered cutaneously. Moreover, mice deficient in the TRPA1 channel failed to exhibit such behaviors.In conclusion, we show that 15d-PGJ2 induces acute nociception when administered cutaneously and does so via a TRPA1-specific mechanism.The prostaglandins (PGs) are a class of biomolecules derived from arachidonic acid (AA) that are involved in a variety of signaling processes including inflammation. For example, PGE2 and PGI2 are produced during inflammation and contribute to the direct sensitization of nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Downstream of binding to its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), PGE2 sensitizes nociceptive neurons to thermal stimuli via PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the heat- and capsaicin-gated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel TRPV1 [1]. TRPV1 is the founding mammalian member of a subfamily of TRP channels gated by temperature (dubbed thermoTRPs)[2].TRPA1, first characterized as a thermoTRP channel gated by noxious cold (although this finding is con
Job Matching Efficiency in Skilled Regions: Evidence on the Microeconomic Foundations of Human Capital Externalities
Daniel F. Heuermann
European Journal of Spatial Development , 2012,
Abstract: Inspired by the literature on the role of local career networks for the quality of labour market matches we investigate whether human capital externalities arise from a higher job matching efficiency in skilled regions. Using two samples of workers in Germany we find that an increase in the regional share of highly qualified workers by one standard deviation is associated with between-job wage growth of about five per cent and with an increase in the annual probability of a job change of about sixty per cent. Wage gains are incurred only by workers changing jobs within industries. We find highly qualified workers in skilled regions to respond to these wage differentials by changing jobs more often within rather than between industries. Taken together, these findings suggest that human capital externalities partly arise because workers in skilled regions have better access to labour market information, which allows them to capitalize on their industry-specific knowledge when changing jobs.
Systemic Complications of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome  [PDF]
Robert J. Schwartzman
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2012.33027
Abstract: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder that is characterized by: 1) Severe pain beyond the area of injury; 2) Autonomic dysregulation; 3) Neuropathic edema; 4) A movement disorder, atrophy and dystrophy. It is most often caused by a fracture, soft-tissue injury or surgical procedure and is divided into Type I, in which no nerve lesion is identified (classic reflex sympathetic dystrophy), and Type II where a specific nerve has been damaged (causalgia). In addition to the peripheral manifestations, there are many internal medical complications whose etiology is often not appreciated. This article will examine how CRPS affects the systems of: cognition; constitutional, cardiac, and respiratory complications; systemic autonomic dysregulation; neurogenic edema; musculoskeletal, endocrine and dermatological manifestations; as well as urological and gastrointestinal function.
Evidence for a Non-β2-Adrenoceptor Binding Site in Human Lung Tissue for a Subset of β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists  [PDF]
Robert J. Slack
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.51006
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the binding profile of a range of β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists and antagonists in human lung tissue. Radioligand saturation and competition binding experiments were performed by filtration with a β2-AR antagonist ([3H]propranolol) or agonist ([3H]vilanterol) radioligand and membrane fragments generated from lung parenchyma in the presence of 100 μM guanosine 5’-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p). In membranes prepared from human lung parenchyma, carmoterol, formoterol, ICI118551, propranolol and salbutamol resulted in inhibition of [3H]vilanterol binding to levels that were significantly different from indacaterol, salmeterol and vilanterol (ANOVA, Bonferroni post-test, P < 0.001 except formoterol vs indacaterol where P < 0.01). Indacaterol and salmeterol resulted in inhibition of [3H]vilanterol binding to levels that were not significantly different from vilanterol (ANOVA, Bonferroni post-test, P > 0.05). Indacaterol, salmeterol and vilanterol resulted in full inhibition of [3H]propranolol binding to levels not significantly different from ICI118551 (ANOVA, Bonferroni post-test, P > 0.05). Indacaterol, salmeterol and vilanterol bind to an additional site in human lung parenchyma membranes that is distinct from the

Social Harmony in Decision Making: Costs and Benefits in Chinese Society  [PDF]
Robert J. Taormina
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.25026
Abstract: Social harmony in Chinese society was examined in relation to decision making. From a historical perspective, it was noted that social harmony evolved as a consequence of the prescriptions Confucius developed in response to thousands of years of war in Chinese history. Social harmony was found to have not only benefits, but also some costs in regard to decision making, especially group decision making, in the hierarchically structured Chinese society. The costs were examined in relation to the problems of groupthink that affect group decisions when there is a strong power hierarchy in society. Groupthink was analyzed for factors that cause it, and those factors were found to be characteristic of Chinese society. Confucian principles of virtuous behavior, namely, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and wisdom, were examined to assess whether they could prevent
groupthink, and were found to provide the means by which Chinese leaders could avoid problems in group decision making. It was thus proposed that leaders could benefit by developing such virtues in their personal lives, which would facilitate harmony in decision making.
Coerced group collaborative evolution as an explanation for sexual reproduction’s prevalence  [PDF]
Robert J. Lin, Feng Lin
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.211152
Abstract: The prevalence of sexual reproduction has long been an outstanding problem of evolutionary biology. Different explanations have been offered to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction. These explanations mainly focus on the benefits of sexual reproduction’s ability to shuffle and recombine genes. In this paper, we propose an alternative and comprehensive point of view to this important problem. We first hypothesize that sexual reproduction leads to genetic homogeneity and maintains adaptational advantages of organisms. In stable conditions with strong selective pressures, the maintenance of desired adaptational advantages is one benefit of sexual reproduction. We further hypothesize that sexual reproduction provides a mechanism by which entire populations of similar genomes can interact and collaborate with one another in order to improve the population’s average genomic fitness, a phenomena we call coerced collaborative group evolution. We show that groups of individuals will improve as a whole, even though each individual is still operating under their own best interests. We also argue that the so-called ‘two-fold cost of males’ is misguided if we take limited resources in any environment into consideration. Finally, we propose an intuitive and visualized view to connect different theories on sexual reproduction to establish a comprehensive theory to explain sexual reproduction’s prevalence.
Factors Influencing Work Efficiency in China  [PDF]
Wei Wei, Robert J. Taormina
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2011.11005
Abstract: The preferred methods of conflict handling are largely sociologically prescribed in China, but those methods could reduce efficiency in the workplace. This study examined factors that could influence the efficiency of working people since efficiency is important to the successful operation of organizations. Some relatively unexplored personality variables, i.e., Creativity and Resilience, Esteem from Others, Attribution for Success (to Self), and Attribution for Success (to Others), and some more usual variables, i.e., Conscientiousness, Self-Confidence, and Organizational Socialization (Training, Understanding, Coworker Support, Future Prospects), were tested for their expected positive relationships to three dependent variables, i.e., Work Efficiency, Conflict Handling-Avoidance, and Conflict Handling-Compromising. Questionnaire data from 192 Chinese employees in Mainland China were analyzed to assess these relationships. Correlation results indicated that all variables (except Future Prospects and Attribution to Others) were positively related to Work Efficiency, and most were positively related to both Conflict Handling-Avoidance, and Conflict Handling-Compromising. Results for the relationships of the personality and social variables to conflict handling and work efficiency are discussed in terms of Chinese culture.
What elk, wolves and caterpillars have in common—The perfect forager theorem  [PDF]
Piotr Weclaw, Robert J. Hudson
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.32016
Abstract:

It is widely accepted that the Marginal Value Theorem (MVT) describes optimal foraging strategies of animals and the mechanism proposed by the MVT has been supported by a number of field observations. However, findings of many researchers indicate that in natural conditions foragers do not always behave according to the MVT. To address this inconsistency, in a series of computer simulation experiments, we examined the behaviour of four types of foragers having specific foraging efficiencies and using the MVT strategies in 15 different landscapes in an ideal environment (no intra-and inter-specific interactions). We used data on elk (Cervus elaphus) to construct our virtual forager. Contrary to the widely accepted understanding of the MVT (residence time in a patch should be longer in environments where travel time between patches is longer) we found that in environments with the same average patch quality and varying average travel times between patches, patch residence times of some foragers are not affected by travel times. Based on our analysis we propose a mechanism responsible for this observation and formulate the perfect forager theorem (PFT). We also introduce the concepts of a foraging coefficient (F) and foragers’ hub (α), and propose a model to describe the relationship between the perfect forager and all other forager types.

Do per Capita Water Use Regulations Penalize Growing Urban Economies  [PDF]
Frederick Bloetscher, Robert J. Eustice
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.43025
Abstract: Water has shaped nations for centuries. However as populations have expanded and economies grow, the demand for water has increased substantially. Large amounts of water are needed for agriculture, power and daily living. This water is often removed from the downstream hydrologic cycle exacerbating current water shortfalls. There are a variety of means to address water demands. However they are disproportionately placed on urban users as those users are the easiest to measure and regulate. Urban users are asked to curtail water use, convert to alternative sources and can be regulated on per capita water use. Per capital water use is often used to show where there is “wasted” water use, usually in the form of excessive irrigation. Most such communities are distinctly urban-large areas with large and diverse populations, which often include a large tourist contingent. However such a metric may penalize successful communities with diverse economic bases, thereby limiting the potential for these urban communities to grow their economies and forcing local officials into difficult decisions with respect to growth, development and job opportunities for their residents. The issue is particularly significant because urban use is only 12.6% of total water use in the United States.
Role of irrational beliefs in depression and anxiety: a review  [PDF]
K. Robert Bridges, Richard J. Harnish
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.28130
Abstract: Irrational beliefs play a central role in cognitive theory and therapy; they have been shown to be related to a variety of disorders such as depression and anxiety. Irrational beliefs, which can be assessed via clinical interviewing techniques, are frequently assessed by self-report measures, both clinically and for research purposes. Much of the research demonstrating the effect of irrational beliefs has utilized such measures. The present article reviews the empirical work on irrational beliefs assessment and identifies 25 scales and techniques. The measures are organized according to their theoretical affiliation (i.e., either the Ellis or Beck model), with the goal of providing investigators a source to identify the available tests, their shortcomings, and potential applications. The authors conclude with recommendations which would strengthen empirical cohesion and precision in the measurement of irrational beliefs.
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