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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 174277 matches for " Robert H. Remien "
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An Online Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating HIV Prevention Digital Media Interventions for Men Who Have Sex with Men
Sabina Hirshfield, Mary Ann Chiasson, Heather Joseph, Roberta Scheinmann, Wayne D. Johnson, Robert H. Remien, Francine Shuchat Shaw, Reed Emmons, Gary Yu, Andrew D. Margolis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046252
Abstract: Background As HIV infection continues unabated, there is a need for effective interventions targeting at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Engaging MSM online where they meet sexual partners is critical for HIV prevention efforts. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted online among U.S. MSM recruited from several gay sexual networking websites assessed the impact of 2 HIV prevention videos and an HIV prevention webpage compared to a control condition for the study outcomes HIV testing, serostatus disclosure, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at 60-day follow-up. Video conditions were pooled due to reduced power from low retention (53%, n = 1,631). No participant incentives were provided. Principal Findings Follow-up was completed by 1,631 (53%) of 3,092 eligible men. In the 60 days after the intervention, men in the pooled video condition were significantly more likely than men in the control to report full serostatus disclosure (‘asked and told’) with their last sexual partner (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.74). Comparing baseline to follow-up, HIV-negative men in the pooled video (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54–0.91) and webpage condition (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25–0.72) significantly reduced UAI at follow-up. HIV-positive men in the pooled video condition significantly reduced UAI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20–0.67) and serodiscordant UAI (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28–0.96) at follow-up. Conclusions/Significance Findings from this online RCT of MSM recruited from sexual networking websites suggest that a low cost, brief digital media intervention designed to engage critical thinking can increase HIV disclosure to sexual partners and decrease sexual risk. Effective, brief HIV prevention interventions featuring digital media that are made widely available may serve as a complementary part of an overall behavioral and biomedical strategy for reducing sexual risk by addressing the specific needs and circumstances of the target population, and by changing individual knowledge, motivations, and community norms. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00649701
Infec??o pelo HIV entre gestantes atendidas nos centros de testagem e aconselhamento em Aids
Cardoso,Ant?nio José Costa; Griep,Rosane Harter; Carvalho,Heráclito Barbosa de; Barros,Alessandro; Silva,S?nia Baptista da; Remien,Robert H.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000900016
Abstract: objective: to estimate hiv prevalence and identify high-risk sexual behavior for infection in pregnant women who were given prenatal assistance. methods: cross-sectional study based on attendance records of 8,002 pregnant women (25% of all municipalities) who lived in 27 municipalities in southern brazil in 2003 and had anti-hiv tests done in a testing and counseling center that performed prenatal assistance. sociodemographic and behavioral data were gathered, as well as syphilis and hiv test results, during the individual counseling sessions registered in the data bank of the sistema de informa??es dos centros de testagem e aconselhamento (information system on testing and counseling centers). women who sought the centers for confirmation of previous serology or were referred to this service due to the presence of aids symptoms were excluded from the data base. results: a total of 0.5% of all the pregnant women analyzed (ci 95%=0.3;0.6) were hiv positive. the only variable associated with hiv seropositivity was schooling. the majority of them were basically exposed through unprotected sexual intercourse with the only partner they had a steady relationship with. younger pregnant women who were single, unemployed and had lower level of education constituted the group with highest exposure. conclusions: the sistema de informa??es dos centros de testagem e aconselhamento turned out to be useful for the epidemiological surveillance of hiv infection and high-risk behavior among pregnant women and could also be useful as regards other populations.
Aberrant Water Homeostasis Detected by Stable Isotope Analysis
Shannon P. O'Grady,Adam R. Wende,Christopher H. Remien,Luciano O. Valenzuela,Lindsey E. Enright,Lesley A. Chesson,E. Dale Abel,Thure E. Cerling,James R. Ehleringer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011699
Abstract: While isotopes are frequently used as tracers in investigations of disease physiology (i.e., 14C labeled glucose), few studies have examined the impact that disease, and disease-related alterations in metabolism, may have on stable isotope ratios at natural abundance levels. The isotopic composition of body water is heavily influenced by water metabolism and dietary patterns and may provide a platform for disease detection. By utilizing a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes as an index case of aberrant water homeostasis, we demonstrate that untreated diabetes mellitus results in distinct combinations, or signatures, of the hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios in body water. Additionally, we show that the δ2H and δ18O values of body water are correlated with increased water flux, suggesting altered blood osmolality, due to hyperglycemia, as the mechanism behind this correlation. Further, we present a mathematical model describing the impact of water flux on the isotopic composition of body water and compare model predicted values with actual values. These data highlight the importance of factors such as water flux and energy expenditure on predictive models of body water and additionally provide a framework for using naturally occurring stable isotope ratios to monitor diseases that impact water homeostasis.
Recent Energy Balance of Earth  [PDF]
Robert S. Knox, David H. Douglass
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.13013
Abstract: A recently published estimate of Earth’s global warming trend is 0.63 ± 0.28 W/m2, as calculated from ocean heat content anomaly data spanning 1993-2008. This value is not representative of the recent (2003-2008) warming/cooling rate because of a “flattening” that occurred around 2001-2002. Using only 2003-2008 data from Argo floats, we find by four different algorithms that the recent trend ranges from –0.010 to –0.161 W/m2 with a typical error bar of ±0.2 W/m2. These results fail to support the existence of a frequently-cited large positive computed radiative imbalance.
Radiation-Induced Lung Cancers in Murine Models  [PDF]
Leena Rivina, Michael Davoren, Robert H. Schiestl
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2014.32006
Abstract:

Radiation therapy is a key weapon in the modern arsenal of cancer treatment. However, this effective treatment comes with risks of its own, and the sheer number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing. As this number increases, so does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards reduction in the incidence of and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing, but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The laboratory mouse Mus musculus remains the most relevant animal model in cancer research due to the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man, its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, and its fully sequenced genome. In this work, we review relevant M. musculusinbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced lung cancers. Associated molecular pathologies are also included.

Intermittent vs Continuous Administration of Nerve Growth Factor to Injured Medial Septal Cholinergic Neurons in Rat Basal Forebrain  [PDF]
Kenneth E. Miller, Gregory E. Frierdich, Robert H. Dillard, Robert H. Soriano, Dikla G. Roufa
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2014.52014
Abstract:

Many medial septal neurons of the basal forebrain are dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) from the hippocampus for survival and maintenance of a cholinergic phenotype. When deprived of their source of NGF by axotomy, medial septal neuronal cell bodies atrophy and lose their cholinergic markers. This is similar to what is observed in the basal forebrain during Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, medial septal neurons were axotomized in female rats by way of a fimbria/fornix lesion. For fourteen days following axotomy, varying NGF doses (1 - 250 μg/ml) were administered to the lateral cerebral ventricle with either mini-osmotic infusion or daily injection. The responsiveness of medial septal neurons was evaluated with choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry. Within the mini-osmotic pumps, NGF activity diminished greatly during the first five days of implantation, but increased dramatically in the CSF after five days of infusion. The responsiveness of medial septal neurons to NGF was dose dependent and the ED50 for NGF injection was determined to be 14.08 μg/ml compared to 27.60 μg/ml for NGF infusion. Intermittent injections at varying intervals were evaluated with 30 μg/ml NGF over a fourteen-day time period (2, 3, 6, or 12 injections). No differences occurred in the number of choline acetyltransferase neurons from rats that received weekly injections to those that received daily injections of NGF. NGF administration has been suggested as a therapy for AD. The results of these studies continue to highlight the need for NGF stability within the delivery system and AD patient CSF, the choice of delivery system, frequency of administration, and the NGF dose for maintaining basal forebrain cholinergic neurons during AD.

LA RAZA Y LA DEFINICIóN DE LA IDENTIDAD DEL “INDIO” EN LAS FRONTERAS DE LA AMéRICA ESPA?OLA COLONIAL
Robert H.,Jackson;
Revista de Estudios Sociales , 2007,
Abstract: the following study examines the process of the creation of indio identity and status, at least on paper, that defi ned the role of the natives in colonial society, on three distinct mission frontiers on the fringes of spanish america. the mission was a frontier institution designed to acculturate and ostensibly transform native populations into sedentary agriculturalists, and incorporate natives into the new colonial order. the fi rst is the jesuit chiquitos mission frontier of eastern upper peru (modern bolivia), populated by ethnically diverse sedentary agriculturalists. the second is the jesuit mission frontier of paraguay with more a homogeneous guaraní population. the fi nal case study comes from the franciscan missions of northern coahuila (mexico) populated by small bands of nomadic hunter-gatherers.
Gibbs’ Paradox and the Definition of Entropy
Robert H. Swendsen
Entropy , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/entropy-e10010015
Abstract: Gibbs’ Paradox is shown to arise from an incorrect traditional definition of the entropy that has unfortunately become entrenched in physics textbooks. Among its flaws, the traditional definition predicts a violation of the second law of thermodynamics when applied to colloids. By adopting Boltzmann’s definition of the entropy, the violation of the second law is eliminated, the properties of colloids are correctly predicted, and Gibbs’ Paradox vanishes.
Why Another Cancer Journal?
Robert H. Weiss
Cancers , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/cancers1010001
Abstract: Why do we need yet another cancer journal? An excellent question, of course, in light of the profusion of general as well as specialized cancer journals in recent times. An easy answer would simply be to say that this journal will be better than the rest; however a less glib (and probably more accurate) response is simply that there is currently an explosion of new techniques and approaches in the field of cancer biology, and that the new, and sometimes unusual and unorthodox, data so generated demands an open-access and unrestricted forum for its dissemination. This was the impetus for starting the journal which you are now reading. [...]
Aziridine Carboxylates, Carboxamides and Lactones: New Methods for Their Preparation and Their Transformation into α- and β-Amino Acid Derivatives
Robert H. Dodd
Molecules , 2000, DOI: 10.3390/50300293
Abstract: The preparation of a variety of novel aziridine-γ-lactones (3) from carbohydrates is described. In contrast to aziridine-2-carboxylates, the lactones react regiospecifically at C-2 with soft nucleophiles to provide optically pure substituted β-amino acid precursors. Hard nucleophiles react exclusively at the C-3 position to provide α-amino acid precursors. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of (3S,4S)-dihydroxy-L-glutamic acid (DHGA) from the appropriate aziridine-γ-lactone. DHGA was subsequently shown to be a selective partial agonist of mGluR1 receptors. A more concise preparation of aziridine-γ-lactones was achieved by 1,4-Michael addition of benzylamine to 2-O-triflylbutenolides. Use of a 2-O-mesylbutenolide led, under the same conditions, to the corresponding aziridine-2-carboxamides or 2-carboxylates. Finally, a new Evanstype aziridinating agent, Ses-iminoiodinane, was developed and shown to react efficiently with unsaturated substrates to give the corresponding aziridines, whose N-Ses protecting groups can be removed under mild conditions.
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