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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191716 matches for " Robert E Sorge "
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Serotonin-Induced Hypersensitivity via Inhibition of Catechol O-Methyltransferase Activity
Douglas Tsao, Jeffrey S Wieskopf, Naim Rashid, Robert E Sorge, Rachel L Redler, Samantha K Segall, Jeffrey S Mogil, William Maixner, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Luda Diatchenko
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-25
The Rat Grimace Scale: A partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions
Susana G Sotocinal, Robert E Sorge, Austin Zaloum, Alexander H Tuttle, Loren J Martin, Jeffrey S Wieskopf, Josiane CS Mapplebeck, Peng Wei, Shu Zhan, Shuren Zhang, Jason J McDougall, Oliver D King, Jeffrey S Mogil
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-55
Abstract: Despite great advances in basic understanding of molecular pain mechanisms and considerable investment by industry, translational achievements in analgesic drug development have been extremely limited. Many believe that the high attrition is due, at least in part, to the poor predictivity of current animal models of pain [1]. As in vivo animal research remains the mainstay of analgesic drug development [2,3], much recent effort has been devoted to reexamining pain testing paradigms in laboratory animals. Of the criticisms directed at the status quo in rodent algesiometry, one of the most common is that the vast majority of preclinical studies measure withdrawal responses to evoking thermal and mechanical stimuli instead of the more clinically important spontaneous pain [4]. Although a number of rodent behaviors are correlated in time with injuries that presumably also produce spontaneous pain, in many cases it has been difficult to demonstrate that these behaviors display specificity and sensitivity as measures of pain [5].Because of the known utility of facial coding scales (based on the facial action coding system; FACS) [6] for the quantification of pain in non-verbal human populations [see [7]], and the prediction by Darwin that nonhuman animals exhibit similar facial expressions to emotional states as do humans [8], we recently developed and characterized the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) [9]. It consists of five facial "action units" (orbital tightening, nose bulge, cheek bulge, ear position, and whisker change) scored on a 0-2 scale for their prominence in still photographs taken from digital video of mice in either a baseline or pain condition. We demonstrated that the MGS displays high accuracy and reliability, is useful for quantifying pain of moderate duration (from several minutes to approximately 1 day), is sensitive to detecting weak analgesic effects, and may represent a measure of the animal's affective response to pain [9].The purpose of the present wor
Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities
Giovanni Sorge, Anna Sorge
Italian Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-36-36
Abstract: Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy.A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations resulting in mental retardation (MR) and seizures that are more frequent than in general population [1-3]. Certain chromosomal syndromes are specifically associated with epilepsy and show a particular clinical and EEG pattern such as 1p36 monosomy, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, ring 20 chromosome syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome, 18q- syndrome, and Down syndrome. Other congenital anomalies, due to chromosomal imbalance, differently from the above mentioned, have no specific patterns of seizures even if these are frequent, for example the 14r syndrome, the Klinefelter syndrome, the Fragile-X syndrome. Some of these will be described successively.For all these syndromes a better knowledge of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci and the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),
Was ist ungerecht? Diskriminierungsebenen aus multiplen Blickwinkeln What is Unjust? Levels of Discrimination from Multiple Perspectives
Christoph Sorge
querelles-net , 2008,
Abstract: Aus einer interdisziplin ren Kolloquiumsreihe im Wintersemester 2004/2005 des Cornelia Goethe Centrums für Frauenstudien und die Erforschung der Geschlechterverh ltnisse (CGC) ist eine Aufsatzsammlung mit acht Beitr gen entstanden, welche sich mit frauenspezifischen Unrechtserfahrungen auseinandersetzen. Der Facettenreichtum der Aufsatzthemen entspricht dem im Titelkompositum Unrechtserfahrungen“ ausgedrückten Spannungsverh ltnis: Zum einen wird anhand von konkret erlebten Einzelschicksalen und von Darstellungen in der Literatur die Erfahrung von Ungerechtigkeit und Unrecht problematisiert. Zum anderen wird die rechtliche Begrifflichkeit genauer untersucht. Die Autorinnen kommen aus den Bereichen Philologie, Rechts- und Geschichtswissenschaft. Entsprechend bietet der Band eine vielf ltige und insgesamt ergiebige Gesamtschau auf die Unrechtserfahrungen von Frauen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. This collected volume of eight essays tackles the experience of injustice specific to women. It was born out of an interdisciplinary colloquium during the winter semester of 2004/2005 at the Cornelia Goethe Center for Women’s Studies and the Study of Gender Relations (CGC). The richly varied themes of the essays correspond to the tension expressed in the composite word in the title “unjust-experience”: For one, the volume problematizes the experience of inequality and injustice through individual concrete experience and through literary presentations. In addition, it examines legal terminology in detail. The authors come from the wide-ranging areas of philology, law, and history. Accordingly, the volume offers a diverse and altogether rich overview of women’s experiences of injustice in the past and the present.
Flavor Production in Pb(160AGeV) on Pb Collisions: Effect of Color Ropes and Hadronic Rescattering
H. Sorge
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.52.3291
Abstract: Collective interactions in the preequilibrium quark matter and hadronic resonance gas stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework of the the transport theoretical approach RQMD. The paper reviews string fusion into color ropes and hadronic rescattering which serve as models for these interactions. Hadron production in central Pb(160AGeV) on Pb collisions has been calculated. The changes of the final flavor composition are more pronounced than in previous RQMD studies of light ion induced reactions at 200AGeV. The ratio of created quark pairs $s\bar{s}$/($u\bar{u}$+$d\bar{d}$) is enhanced by a factor of 2.4 in comparison to $pp$ results. Color rope formation increases the initially produced antibaryons to 3 times the value in the `NN mode', but only one quarter of the produced antibaryons survives because of subsequent strong absorption. The differences in the final particle composition for Pb on Pb collisions compared to S induced reactions are attributed to the hadronic resonance gas stage which is baryon-richer and lasts longer.
Elliptical flow -- a signature for early pressure in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions
H. Sorge
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.2309
Abstract: Elliptical energy flow patterns in non-central Au(11.7AGeV) on Au reactions have been studied employing the RQMD model. The strength of these azimuthal asymmetries is calculated comparing the results in two different modes of RQMD (mean field and cascade). It is found that the elliptical flow which is readily observable with current experimental detectors may help to distinguish different reasonable expansion scenarios for baryon-dense matter. The final asymmetries are very sensitive to the pressure at maximum compression, because they involve a partial cancelation between early squeeze-out and subsequent flow in the reaction plane. This cancelation can be expected to occur in a broad energy region covered by the current heavy ion fixed-target programs at BNL and at CERN.
Soft transverse expansion in Pb(158 AGeV) on Pb collisions: preequilibrium motion or 1st order phase transition?
H. Sorge
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00474-7
Abstract: Transverse expansion of centrally produced matter in Pb on Pb collisions at beam energies around 158 AGeV appears to be rather `soft'. Two possible reasons -- an extended preequilibrium stage and a first order phase transition from a quark-gluon-plasma into hadronic matter -- are discussed. The softening of transverse expansion caused by preequilibrium dynamics is estimated with the aid of the transport model RQMD which does not contain a first order phase transition. It is found that the anisotropy of transverse flow in non-central reactions is very different in the preequilibrium and hydrodynamic scenarios even if the latter are based on a strong 1st order transition.
Temperatures and Non-ideal Expansion in Ultrarelativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions
H. Sorge
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)00110-4
Abstract: The hadronic phase space distributions calculated with the transport model RQMD for central S(200 AGeV) on S and Pb(160AGeV) on Pb collisions are analyzed to study the deviations from ideal hydrodynamical evolution. After the preequilibrium stage, which lasts for approximately 4 (2) fm/c in Pb+Pb (S+S) the source stays in approximate kinetic equilibrium for about 2 fm/c at a temperature close to 140 MeV. The interactions of mesons last until around 14 (5) fm/c during which time strong transverse flow is generated. The interactions in the hadronic resonance gas are not sufficiently strong to maintain ideal fluid expansion. While pions acquire average transverse fluid velocities around 0.47-0.58 c, heavier particles like protons and kaons cannot keep up with the pionic fluid, since their average velocities are smaller by about 20 to 30 \%. Although kinetic equilibrium breaks down in the final dilute stage of $AA$ collisions, the system resembles a thermal system at a temperature of 130 MeV, if the free streaming of hadrons after freeze-out is suppressed. This freeze-out temperature is consistent with estimates based on mean free paths and expansion rates in a thermal fireball but lower than values derived from fits to measured particle ratios and transverse momentum spectra. The processes in RQMD to which the differences can be attributed to are the non-ideal expansion of the hadronic matter and the absence of chemical equilibrium at freeze-out.
Strangeness in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions
H. Sorge
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00791-4
Abstract: I discuss strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus reactions at ultrarelativistic energies (up to 200 AGeV). In these reactions matter may be created with densities and temperatures in the transition region between quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and hadron gas. Strange anti-baryon enhancement at 200 AGeV and probably even more so at 10 AGeV signals importance of interactions beyond hadron gas dynamics. The systematics of strangeness production indicates that energy and baryon density are key variables while the size of the production volume plays no visible role. Analysis of strangeness appears useful to explore thermalization, flow and the post-equilibrium stage in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions.
Highly Sensitive Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow -- A Novel Signature of the Phase Transition in QCD
Heinz Sorge
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.2048
Abstract: Elliptic flow of the hot, dense system which has been created in nucleus-nucleus collisions develops as a response to the initial azimuthal asymmetry of the reaction region. Here it is suggested that the magnitude of this response shows a ``kinky'' dependence on the centrality of collisions for which the system passes through a first-order or rapid transition between quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter. We have studied the system Pb(158AGeV) on Pb employing a recent version of the transport theoretical approach RQMD and find the conjecture confirmed. The novel phase transition signature may be observable in present and forthcoming experiments at CERN-SPS and at RHIC, the BNL collider.
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