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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 483051 matches for " Robert A Kesterson "
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Genetic Ablation of CD68 Results in Mice with Increased Bone and Dysfunctional Osteoclasts
Jason W. Ashley, Zhenqi Shi, Haibo Zhao, Xingsheng Li, Robert A. Kesterson, Xu Feng
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025838
Abstract: CD68 is a member of the lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP) family that is restricted in its expression to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. This lineage restriction includes osteoclasts, and, while previous studies of CD68 in macrophages and dendritic cells have proposed roles in lipid metabolism, phagocytosis, and antigen presentation, the expression and function of CD68 in osteoclasts have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of CD68 in macrophages and osteoclasts in response to the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that M-CSF stimulates CD68 expression and RANKL alters the apparent molecular weight of CD68 as measured by Western immunoblotting. In addition, we explored the significance of CD68 expression in osteoclasts by generating mice that lack expression of CD68. These mice have increased trabecular bone, and in vitro assessment of CD68?/? osteoclasts revealed that, in the absence of CD68, osteoclasts demonstrate an accumulation of intracellular vesicle-like structures, and do not efficiently resorb bone. These findings demonstrate a role for CD68 in the function of osteoclasts, and future studies will determine the mechanistic nature of the defects seen in CD68?/? osteoclasts.
Mammalian Clusterin associated protein 1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein required for ciliogenesis
Raymond C Pasek, Nicolas F Berbari, Wesley R Lewis, Robert A Kesterson, Bradley K Yoder
Cilia , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-2530-1-20
Abstract: Cluap1 mutant embryos were generated and examined for gross morphological and anatomical defects using light microscopy. Reverse transcription PCR, β-galactosidase staining assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used to determine the expression of the gene and localization of the protein in vivo and in cultured cell lines. We also used immunofluorescence analysis and qRT-PCR to examine defects in the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in mutant embryos.Cluap1 mutant embryos die in mid-gestation, indicating that it is necessary for proper development. Mutant phenotypes include a failure of embryonic turning, an enlarged pericardial sac, and defects in neural tube development. Consistent with the diverse phenotypes, Cluap1 is widely expressed. Furthermore, the Cluap1 protein localizes to primary cilia, and mutant embryos were found to lack cilia at embryonic day 9.5. The phenotypes observed in Cluap1 mutant mice are indicative of defects in Sonic hedgehog signaling. This was confirmed by analyzing hedgehog signaling activity in Cluap1 mutants, which revealed that the pathway is repressed.These data indicate that the function of Cluap1 is evolutionarily conserved with regard to ciliogenesis. Further, the results implicate mammalian Cluap1 as a key regulator of hedgehog signaling and as an intraflagellar transport B complex protein. Future studies on mammalian Cluap1 utilizing this mouse model may provide insights into the role for Cluap1 in intraflagellar transport and the association with colon cancer and cystic kidney disorders.Cilia are complex organelles requiring hundreds of different genes for their assembly and function [1]. The assembly of the cilium is dependent on intraflagellar transport (IFT), a molecular motor-driven process that mediates the bidirectional movement of proteins between the base and tip of the cilium [2,3]. IFT was initially described in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and subsequently in multiple other ciliated eukaryotes, the
Partial duplication of the APBA2 gene in chromosome 15q13 corresponds to duplicon structures
James S Sutcliffe, Michael K Han, Taneem Amin, Robert A Kesterson, Erika L Nurmi
BMC Genomics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-4-15
Abstract: We show that this gene actually maps to a more telomeric location and is partially duplicated within the broader region. Two highly homologous copies of an interval containing a large 5' exon and downstream sequence are located ~5 Mb distal to the intact locus. The duplicated copies, containing the first coding exon of APBA2, can be distinguished by single nucleotide sequence differences and are transcriptionally inactive. Adjacent to APBA2 maps a gene termed KIAA0574. The protein encoded by this gene is weakly homologous to a protein termed X123 that in turn maps adjacent to APBA1 on 9q21.12; APBA1 is highly homologous to APBA2 in the C-terminal region and is distinguished from APBA2 by the N-terminal region encoded by this duplicated exon.The duplication of APBA2 sequences in this region adds to a complex picture of different low copy repeats present across this region and elsewhere on the chromosome.Human chromosome 15q11-q13 is associated with genomic disorders involving deletions, duplications and triplications of different intervals in this region. The formation of these cytogenetic abnormalities is mediated by low-copy repeated sequences, or duplicons [1]. High sequence homology between copies presumably facilitates mispairing and unequal recombination events in meiosis. Interstitial deletion of 15q11-q13 results in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS; MIM # 176270) or Angelman syndrome (AS; MIM # 105830), when deletions occur on the paternally-derived or maternally-derived homolog, respectively (see Figure 1; reviewed in refs. [2-4]). Interstitial duplication of the same interval has been found in cases of autism, and data suggest a higher risk for autism with maternal compared to paternal duplications [5-7]. Chromosome 15 is the most frequently involved chromosome in cases of autism with supernumerary marker chromosomes. 15q-derived markers are inverted, duplicated and pseudodicentric structures and are known as inv dup(15) or idic(15). Small markers which do not co
It’s a Matter of Time  [PDF]
Robert A. Barrett Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.66081
Abstract: This paper describes a universe consisting only of time dilation and compares it to the one which we observe.
Real Magnetic Poles (Magnetic Charges) in the Physics of Magnetism, Gravitation and Levitation  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.68106
Abstract: Experiments executed by author of the present article (period 1968-1992) showed that the magnetic spinorial particles (magnetic charges) are real structural components of atoms and substance and are immediate sources of all magnetic fields in Nature. Joint orbital currents of electric and magnetic charges within atomic shells are the natural sources of gravitational field which is a vortical electromagnetic field. The vector nature of the gravitational field, in essence, is analogous to the vortical magnetic field that allows entering in the physical representations of such States of the gravitational field as paragravitation and ferrogravitation. Physical masses (atoms, substance, etc.), which emit ferrogravitational field, are repelled by sources paragravitational field, for example, from Earth. It is a manifestation of the effect of levitation, which was discovered by the author of this article. The forces of the technical levitation, which are formed by technical ferrogravitational fields, can be used in transport, lifting and space technology, energy and many other areas of human activity. The main reason that the real magnetic charges were “buried alive” in modern theoretical physics is the conditions of their confinement in the structures of atoms and substance, which is radically different from the confinement of electrons. Very negative role is played here by erroneous electromagnetic concept Maxwell, in which the magnetic field was officially deprived of their own source: magnetic pole or magnetic charge.
Real Magnetic Charges in the Substance, Ferrogravitation and Technical Levitation  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.611161
Abstract: Experimental and theoretical investigations by author of the present article (period: 1968-2013) have shown that the magnetic spinor particles (magnetic charges) are real structural components of atoms and substance and are immediate sources of all magnetic fields in Nature. Joint orbital currents of electric and magnetic charges within atomic shells are the natural sources of gravitational field which is a vortex electromagnetic field. The vector character of the elementary gravitational field is similar to the vortex magnetic field that allows entering in the submission of such fundamental states of the gravitational field, as a paragravitation and ferrogravitation. Physical masses (atoms, nucleons, substance, etc.), which emit ferrogravitational field are repelled off from sources paragravitational field, for example, from Earth. It is a manifestation of the effect of levitation, which was discovered by the author of this article. Technical forces levitation, that induced by technical ferrogravitational fields, could be used in transport, lifting and space technology, power engineering and many other areas of human activity. The main reasons that real magnetic charges are “buried alive” in modern theoretical notions are as physics their of confinement in the structures of atoms and substance which are radically different from the confinement of electrons so and fallacious electromagnetic concept Maxwell in which the magnetic field is by mistake deprived of its own source of the magnetic pole or of the magnetic charge.
Dirac’s “Holes” Are the True Antielectrons and Real Particles of Antimatter  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615232
Abstract: Experimental and theoretical studies performed by the author showed that electric and magnetic spinor particles as spinors, i.e. particles of Matter so and Antispinors, particles of Antimatter, are structural components of atoms and substance. Together with electric spinors, for example, electrons in the structures of atoms and substances in same quantities, there are real electric anti-spinors, i.e. the true antielectrons, which are not to be confused with electronic vacancies or positrons. Atomic-shaped electromagnetic structures, consisting of electric and magnetic spinor particles, such as nucleons and atoms, represent a Physical Mass. A characteristic property of all varieties of Physical Mass is the ability to emit a gravitational field which is a vortex electromagnetic field. Sources of the gravitational field are joint orbital currents of electric and magnetic charges in the compositions of atomic or nucleon shells. The main reason that the real antielectrons turned out in the Physical sciences under the guise of Dirac’s “holes” or vacancies of electrons, is the Physics of the confinement of these particles in atoms and a substance that is fundamentally different from the confinement of electrons. So, namely Physics confinement of the magnetic spinor particles and electric antispinors in atoms is the main “culprit” creating a fallacious concept of purely electronic atomic shells. The main contributions to the formation of the above-mentioned misconceptions did as J. C. Maxwell with its primitive-surface electromagnetic concept so and P. Dirac, with his erroneous theory of electronic vacancies or “holes”.
The World Physical Triad: Matter, Antimatter and “Dark Energy” in the Processes of Climatic Changes on the Earth  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.76059
Abstract: The opening and many years of research of magnetic spinor particles (real magnetic charges) in atoms and substance have enabled the author to formulate the conception of the Physical Triad, according which the real World consists of three fundamental phases: Matter, Antimatter and Energo-phase (Energo-medium). Particles of Matter are called spinors and particles of Antimatter are called antispinors. Energo-medium is a gasiform phase of high density that fills by himself all the infinite space of the real World. It consists of spinless and massless particles-energions. Spinor fields can be both flows energions (fields of Matter), so and anti-flow energions (fields of Antimatter). Atomic-shaped structures consisting of electric and magnetic spinor particles represent a Physical Mass (atoms, nucleons, etc.). The main characteristic of all varieties of Mass is its ability radiate gravitational field, which is a vortex electromagnetic field. All spinor particles are massless so as individually generate a gravitational field they can’t. All primary forces in the real World are implemented by means of Energo-medium, i.e. contact pressure its particles—energions. The spinor fields, including the gravitational field, myself the real of the power significance, have not. They are only intermediaries, inducing in Energo-medium its active (power) education, which is called “Dark Energy”. “Dark Energy” can be both positive, so and negative. Namely, a positive “Dark Energy”, which is associated with the technical activity of man, is responsible for stable climatic changes on Earth. Greenhouse gases are not the main “culprit” of climatic changes on our planet. However, these gases are the simplest indicator of the overall level of irreversible physical processes that stimulate the growth of the positive “Dark Energy” and are responsible for the negative thermal scenario on Earth.
Electromagnetic Shells of Atoms and the Periodic System of Elements  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.716206
Abstract:

Experimental and theoretical researches performed by the author (period: 1969-present) showed that the magnetic spinor particles (magnetic charges) are real structural components of atoms and substance and are immediate sources of all mag-netic fields and magnetic manifestations in Nature. Magnetic charges, which constitute together with electrical charges the atomic shells, got of the Authors title: magnetons and antimagnetons (respectively, with magnetic charges g and g+, under fundamental condition: g = e). Besides, together with electrons and magnetic charges in the structures of atomic shells, in the same quantities as the electrons, exist real electric antispinors, i.e. the true antielectrons. In the structures of the atomic shells on each electron fitted still three a real spinor particles: two magnetic (magneton and antimagneton) and one electric, i.e. true antielectron with a charge of e+. The spinor particles in atomic shells exist in the form of the two spinor associations: the electromagnetic dibispinors or S-Gravitons and magnetic bispinors (spinorial magnetic dipoles). Magnetic bispinors, which inhabited on the 3d and 4f-shells are the sources of the atomic magnetic fields and are responsible at all magnetic manifestations of the so-called magnetic atoms (iron, nickel, cobalt and others). In composition of S-Graviton is two related bispinor (electric and magnetic). S-Gravitons make up bulk of the charged density of atomic shells and are direct sources of the atomic

Magnetic and Electric Charges in Physics and Technology of Electromagnetic and Magnetoelectric Induction  [PDF]
Robert A. Sizov
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.86061
Abstract: Experimental and theoretical researches performed by the author (period: 1969-present) showed that magnetic spinor particles (magnetic charges) are real structural components of atoms and substance and immediate sources of all magnetic fields and magnetic manifestations in Nature. Magnetic charges, that constitute together with electrical charges atomic shells got of title: magnetons and antimagnetons (respectively with charges g and g+ under fundamental condition: g = e). Furthermore, in addition to participating in structures of atomic shells, the magnetic charges exist in potential and even in real zones conduction of solids. The magnetic and electric spinor particles in atoms and substance exist in form such of the spinor associations as the magnetic and electric bispinors. Under influence of external magnetic field in conductor being implemented polarization of magnetic bispinors with formation of magnetic dipoles. Internal fields magnetic dipoles is directed against an external magnetic field and is a simple explanation of such a physical manifestation as diamagnetism. During the rotation of these dipoles in the conductor are formed of the vortex magnetic dipole fields, which and create an electromotive force, i.e. are responsible for the electromagnetic induction. Author proposed new magneto-electric technology called the magnetoelectric induction, as the result of which the permanent current of magnetic charges is created. However, such currents may be implemented solely in the superconductors. In the article presented the main reasons which more hundred year old hinder recognition and technical use of the real magnetic charges and their currents what considerably slow down the global scientific and technological progress.
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