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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 113887 matches for " Rob O’Farrell "
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Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease—The Effect of Acute Exercise and Pulmonary Rehabilitation  [PDF]
Amani I. El Gammal, Rob OFarrell, Liam O’Mahony, Fergus Shanahan, Kieran Killian, Terence M. O’Connor
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51003
Abstract: Background: Decreased physical capacity and increased systemic inflammatory response are frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The relationship between the inflammatory response and disease severity and the immunological response to exercise were addressed in COPD. Objective: The first objective was to identify systemic biomarkers and their relationship with COPD severity. The second objective was to examine the effect of both acute exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation on these biomarkers. Methods: Forty subjects participated in the study. Thirty-two patients with moderate or severe COPD and 8 healthy non-smokers completed the study. Spirometry was preformed. Physical capacity was determined by a progressive symptom-limited cycle ergo meter (incremental) test. Blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), pro-fibrotic cytokines (TGF-β) and oxidative burst in circulating leukocytes before and after exercise, and before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: IL-6, CRP, WCC and TGF-β were higher in COPD (p < 0.05) than eight healthy controls. WCC, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and TGF-β were negatively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (r = 0.4054, 0.3221, 0.1528, 0.1846 and 0.1187, respectively). Acute exercise increased circulating leucocytes and oxidative stress in both groups (p = 0.000, 0.0049 respectively), while IL-6 was increased in COPD group ((p = 0.0115) and circulating TNF-α in healthy control (p = 0.0369). Pulmonary rehabilitation didn’t modify the levels of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers and acute exercise can further increase this inflammatory response. However pulmonary rehabilitation is unlikely to exacerbate systemic inflammation in COPD.
Diagnostic CT: Are Patients Adequately Informed?  [PDF]
John Coyne, Angela Brent, Ewan OFarrell
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/act.2012.11001
Abstract: AIM: CT scanning is a widely utilised effective diagnostic tool. We aimed to establish whether patients are adequately informed prior to undergoing CT investigations. Methods: All adult patients with mental capacity attending the department for a CT study over a week period were invited to fill out a brief questionnaire prior to their scan. Results: 57 patients returned completed questionnaires. Overall 23% of patients were unsure or incorrect about the type of scan scheduled. Of patients attending with a new condition, 46% of them did not know their provisional diagnosis. Only 32 % of patients had insight into how a CT scan worked. This was taken to mean that the patient had included some reference to either x-rays, radiation or cross sectional imaging. Only 23% of patients were aware of potential complications of CT scans. Conclusion: Although written consent prior to CT scan is probably a step too far in providing patients with relevant risks/benefits of their investigation, we propose all patients undergoing CT have prior access to a written information sheet should they wish to be further informed regarding their procedure.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome—A New Way to Diagnose an Old Problem  [PDF]
Conor O’Brien, Rob Byrden
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.71012
Abstract: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome [TTS] is the most common lower limb focal neuropathy but it has a poor pick up rate in most Electrodiagnostic (EXD) Laboratories. There is no gold standard for assessing TTS. The tibial nerve has a complex branching system with 4 main branches and 9 different patterns of division. This study evaluated potential TTS with a similar and extensive assessment of the tibial nerve. The protocol involved 2 tibial motor studies to the Adductor Hallucis Longus (AH) and Adductor Digiti Quinti (ADQ) muscles, assessing amplitudes and distal latencies; medial plantar, lateral plantar and calcaneal sensory studies assessing amplitudes and distal latencies. A needle EMG to the tibial innervated AH and ADQ muscles was also performed. This protocol evaluated 12 different parameters which significantly increased the diagnostic yield. TTS has a low pick up rate using current standard assessment methods accounting for between 0.5% and 0.6% of positive cases referred to electrodiagnostic laboratories. This study had a pick up rate of 3.3% with 40 positive cases identified out of a population of 1210 patients referred to an electrodiagnostic laboratory in a calendar year. A combination of positive findings was observed. There were on average 4.3 positive parameters. The calcaneal sensory study and the needle EMG to the distal AH and ADQ muscles were the most sensitive tests. These 3 tests are not routinely performed in most labs. Of the 40 cases of TTS over 80% had a history of either prior injury or surgery to affected lower limb. This study suggests that this 12 parameter assessment will increase diagnostic sensitivity.
Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection
OFarrell,Nigel;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000600014
Abstract: abstract: it remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic between african countries. the prevalence of hiv infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern africa but in most countries of west africa the levels are much lower. although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (stis) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of hiv, there is little comparative sti data from the african countries worst affected by hiv infection. a medline search covering the period 1966 to august 2000 using the keywords ??sexually transmitted diseases??, ??genital ulcers?? and ??africa?? was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of hiv infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. in the countries worst affected by hiv infection, the proportions of men and women with sti who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. the proportions were much lower in countries of west africa than in those of southern africa. the african countries worst affected by hiv infection should adopt a more specialized approach to sti control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. locally, technical sti committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. in these countries, national aids control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.
A Stitch in Time
Brigid OFarrell
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2006,
Abstract: [Mrs. Roosevelt] conversed amiably with others about trade union activities among the women, relating several interesting episodes revealing her own steadfast allegiance to the cause of labor and political liberty. Justice, 1 April, 1934At a White House ceremony on March 28, 1934, Sister Margaret Di Maggio, a rank and file member of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU), presented a plaque to Mrs. Roosevelt, which read To Eleanor Anna Roosevelt from her fellow workers of ...
Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection
O?Farrell Nigel
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords ??sexually transmitted diseases??, ??genital ulcers?? and ??Africa?? was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.
Interpretation of the Mwanza and Rakai STI trials
O?Farrell Nigel
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract:
With a little help from my friends
Anthony G. O'Farrell
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: This article is based on a talk given at a one-day meeting in NUI, Maynooth on the Fourth of April, 2008, held to honour David Walsh and Richard Watson. It surveys joint work with the author.
Reversibility and Banach Algebras
Anthony G. O'Farrell
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: An element $g$ of a group is called {\em reversible} if it is conjugate in the group to its inverse. In this paper we review some results about the structure of groups involving the reversible elements and we pose some questions about groups associated to a Banach algebra.
Boundary smoothness of analytic functions
Anthony G. O'Farrell
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s13324-014-0074-0
Abstract: We consider the behaviour of holomorphic functions on a bounded open subset of the plane, satisfying a Lipschitz condition with exponent $\alpha$, with $0<\alpha<1$, in the vicinity of an exceptional boundary point where all such functions exhibit some kind of smoothness. Specifically, we consider the relation between the abstract idea of a bounded point derivation on the algebra of such functions and the classical complex derivative evaluated as a limit of difference quotients. We obtain a result which applies, for example, when the open set admits an interior cone at the special boundary point.
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