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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5120 matches for " Rita; "
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Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard  [PDF]
Rita Kant
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.41004
Abstract: Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today. In fact the art of applying color to fabric has been known to mankind since 3500 BC. WH Perkins in 1856 discovered the use of synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes have provided a wide range of colorfast, bright hues. However their toxic nature has become a cause of grave concern to environmentalists. Use of synthetic dyes has an adverse effect on all forms of life. Presence of sulphur, naphthol, vat dyes, nitrates, acetic acid, soaps, enzymes chromium compounds and heavy metals like copper, arsenic, lead, cad- mium, mercury, nickel, and cobalt and certain auxiliary chemicals all collectively make the textile effluent highly toxic. Other harmful chemicals present in the water may be formaldehyde based dye fixing agents, chlorinated stain removers, hydro carbon based softeners, non bio degradable dyeing chemicals. These organic materials react with many disinfectants especially chlorine and form by products (DBP’S) that are often carcinogenic and therefore undesirable. Many of these show allergic reactions. The colloidal matter present along with colors and oily scum increases the turbidity, gives the water a bad appearance and foul smell and prevents the penetration of sunlight necessary for the process of photosynthesis. This in turn interferes with the Oxygen transfer mechanism at air water interface which in turn interferes with marine life and self purification process of water. This effluent if allowed to flow in the fields’ clogs the pores of the soil resulting in loss of soil productivity. If allowed to flow in drains and rivers it effects the quality of drinking water in hand pumps making it unfit for human consumption. It is important to remove these pollutants from the waste waters before their final disposal.
Adsorption of Dye Eosin from an Aqueous Solution on two Different Samples of Activated Carbon by Static Batch Method  [PDF]
Rita Kant
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.42011
Abstract: Removal of dye Eosin on two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method was studied. Experimental data on optical density of blank solutions of different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L and optical density of solutions after adsorption on activated carbon samples were taken and analyzed. Calibration curves were plotted and the amount of dye adsorbed was calculated. The data was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for two different carbon samples and different concentration values. Constants were calculated from the slope and intercept values of the isotherms. Coefficient of correlation R2 and Standard Deviation SD were also noted. The data fitted well to the iso- therms. It was observed that adsorption decreased with increase in ppm concentrations. Carbon sample C2 showed higher potential to adsorb the dye Eosin as compared to carbon sample C1. Further Carbon sample C2 showed better adsorption in acidic pH as compared to in alkaline pH. From the analysis of the data it is shown that C2 sample has a good capacity to remove the textile dye from the residue water.
Adsorption of yellow dye: Acid yellow RR from its aqueous solution using two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method  [PDF]
Kant Rita
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42016
Abstract: Removal of dye Acid Yellow RR, using two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method was studied. Experimental data on optical density of blank solutions of different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L and optical density of solutions after adsorption on activated carbon samples were taken and analyzed. Calibration curves were plotted and the amount of dye qe adsorbed was calculated. The data was fitted to Polynomial, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for two different carbon samples and different concentration and pH values. Constants were calculated from the slope and intercept values of the isotherms. Coefficient of correlation R2 and Standard Deviation SD were also noted. The data fitted well to the isotherms. Carbon sample C1 showed higher potential to adsorb the yellow dye. Adsorption was higher at lower concentrations of the solution. Carbon sample C2 showed better adsorption in acidic pH as com- pared to in alkaline pH. From the analysis of the data it is shown that C2 sample has a good capacity to remove the textile dye from the residue water although sample C1 was still better.
Theoretical Investigations of Ti-Based Binary Shape Memory Alloys  [PDF]
Rita John, Hannah Ruben
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.210184
Abstract: The electronic structure and ground state properties of TiX (X = Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt and Cu) type Shape Memory alloys have been calculated using the self consistent Tight- Binding Linear Muffin Tin Orbital (TB-LMTO) method. The systematic total energy studies made on TiX alloys in both B2 and (B19/B19’) structures successfully explain the structural stability of these compounds. The equilibrium lattice parameters, bulk moduli (Bo), cohesive energy (Ecoh) and heat of formation (ΔH) are calculated for these systems and compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results. The bonding nature of these TiX alloys is analyzed via the density of states (DOS) histogram.
A Multi-Leveled Approach to Intrusion Detection and the Insider Threat  [PDF]
Rita M. Barrios
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2013.41007
Abstract:

When considering Intrusion Detection and the Insider Threat, most researchers tend to focus on the network architecture rather than the database which is the primary target of data theft. It is understood that the network level is adequate for many intrusions where entry into the system is being sought however it is grossly inadequate when considering the database and the authorized insider. Recent writings suggest that there have been many attempts to address the insider threat phenomena in regards to database technologies by the utilization of detection methodologies, policy management systems and behavior analysis methods however, there appears to be a lacking in the development of adequate solutions that will achieve the level of detection that is required. While it is true that Authorization is the cornerstone to the security of the database implementation, authorization alone is not enough to prevent the authorized entity from initiating malicious activities in regards to the data stored within the database. Behavior of the authorized entity must also be considered along with current data access control policies. Each of the previously mentioned approaches to intrusion detection at the database level has been considered individually, however, there has been limited research in producing a multileveled approach to achieve a robust solution. The research presented outlines the development of a detection framework by introducing a process that is to be implemented in conjunction with information requests. By utilizing this approach, an effective and robust methodology has been achieved that can be used to determine the probability of an intrusion by the authorized entity, which ultimately address the insider threat phenomena at its most basic level.

Osteopathic manipulative treatment and nutrition: An alternative approach to the irritable bowel syndrome  [PDF]
Luca Collebrusco, Rita Lombardini
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A2013
Abstract:

A simple treatment plan for manual therapists is presented based on current evidence-based literature, it is designed to lessen chronic pain and inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). A chronic continuous or intermittent gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, IBS appears due to dysregulation of brain-gut-microbe communication. An overview of its management using Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is described. In IBS OMT focuses on the nervous and circulatory systems, spine, viscera, thoracic and pelvic diaphragms in order to restore homeostatic balance, normalize autonomic activity in the intestine, promote lymphatic flow and address somatic dysfunction. Lymphatic and venous congestion is treated by the Lymphatic Pump Techniques and stimulation of Chapman’s Reflex Points. The food itself, food allergies and intolerance could contribute to symptom onset or even cause IBS. Furthermore the “microbiota” greatly impacts on the bi-directional brain-gut axis communication. This paper also provides appropriate dietary modifications for patients with IBS.

Self-Pereception of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  [PDF]
Mary Rita Welle
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.41005
Abstract:

Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may view themselves as children; indeed they are often treated in a childlike manner by others. Some may develop a self-perception that they are minors and view children more as peers. Using data from this author’s (Smith, 2006) unpublished dissertation, developmental self-perception is explored by using a subset of questions from the SSKAAT-R instrument (Griffiths & Lunsky, 2003). This study discusses how some adults with IDD self-identify as more closely resembling children. A total of 26 adults with IDD, 17 males and nine females, were involved. With IRB approval, questions that would assess understanding regarding perception of self (along with a follow-up question regarding sexual attraction) were posed. Of the 26 participants, 73% self-identified as more closely resembling adults, whereas the remaining 27% self-identified as more closely resembling children.

Ab Initio Calculations on Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of ZnO in Wurtzite Phase  [PDF]
Rita John, S. Padmavathi
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2016.52003
Abstract: Self-consistent ab initio calculations are performed on the structural, electronic and optical properties of wurtzite ZnO. The Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method is applied to solve the Kohn-Sham equations. Results are obtained by using the PBE-GGA and mBJLDA exchange correlation potentials. The energy and charge convergence have been examined to study the ground state properties. The band structure and Density of States (DOS) diagrams are plotted from the calculated equilibrium lattice parameters. The general profiles of the optical spectra and the optical properties, including the real and imaginary part of dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, absorption co-efficient, electron energy loss function and optical conductivity of wurtzite ZnO under ambient conditions are discussed. The optical anisotropy is studied through the calculated optical constants, namely dielectric function and refractive index along three different crystallographic axes.
Theoretical Investigation of Structural, Electronic, and Mechanical Properties of Two Dimensional C, Si, Ge, Sn  [PDF]
Rita John, Benita Merlin
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2016.5304
Abstract: In this article, we investigate the predictions of the first principles on structural stability, electronic and mechanical properties of 2D nanostructures: graphene, silicene, germanene and stenane. The electronic band structure and density of states in all these 2D materials are found to be generic in nature. A small band gap is generated in all the reported materials other than graphene. The linearity at the Dirac cone changes to quadratic, from graphene to stenane and a perfect semimetalicity is exhibited only by graphene. All other 2D structures tend to become semiconductors with an infinitesimal band gap. Bonding characteristics are revealed by density of states histogram, charge density contour, and Mulliken population analysis. Among all 2D materials graphene exhibits exotic mechanical properties. Analysis by born stability criteria and the calculation of formation enthalpies envisages the structural stability of all the structures in the 2D form. The calculated second order elastic stiffness tensor is used to determine the moduli of elasticity in turn to explore the mechanical properties of all these structures for the prolific use in engineering science. Graphene is found to be the strongest material but brittle in nature. Germanene and stenane exhibit ductile nature and hence could be easily incorporated with the existing technology in the semiconductor industry on substrates.
Sex Chromatin in Peripheral Blood Neutrophils and Sex Determination  [PDF]
Zoja Miknien?, Rita Ivanauskait?
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.71005
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review in what forms sex chromatin can appear in peripheral blood neutrophils and how sex determination can be done using sex chromatin appendages. Sex chromatin is an approximately 1 micron clump of chromatin seen usually at the periphery of female nuclei in certain tissues and called “Barr body” and as a drumstick in polymor phonuclear neutrophils nuclei in the blood smears. Sex chromatin is derived from one of the two X chromosomes in the female which replicates its deoxyribonucleic acid much later than the other and is thus positively heteropyknotic. In 1954, Davidson and Smith were the first to identify and report the presence of neutrophil drumsticks and nonspecific appendages and their differences in sexes. The inactive X chromosome in neutrophils appears in one of the five forms: drumsticks, racquet forms, sessile nodules, small clubs and minor lobes. Only drumstick appendage is sex-specific and considered for sex diagnosis. For sex determination, drumsticks are significantly higher in females than in males (p < 0.001).
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