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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5126 matches for " Rita Nocerino "
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The Potential Therapeutic Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in Children with Food Allergies
Roberto Berni Canani,Margherita Di Costanzo,Vincenza Pezzella,Linda Cosenza,Viviana Granata,Gianluca Terrin,Rita Nocerino
Pharmaceuticals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ph5060655
Abstract: Food allergy (FA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with 80–90% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of five years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of FA is changing, with an increasing persistence until later ages. The pathogenesis of FA as well as oral tolerance is complex and not completely known, although numerous studies implicate gut-associated immunity and enteric microflora, and it has been suggested that an altered composition of intestinal microflora results in an unbalanced local and systemic immune response to food allergens. In addition, there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of gut microbiota between patients affected by FA and healthy infants. These findings prompted the concept that specific beneficial bacteria from the human intestinal microflora, designated probiotics, could restore intestinal homeostasis and prevent or alleviate allergy, at least in part by interacting with the intestinal immune cells.
Tolerance to a new free amino acid-based formula in children with IgE or non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy: a randomized controlled clinical trial
Roberto Berni Canani, Rita Nocerino, Ludovica Leone, Margherita Di Costanzo, Gianluca Terrin, Annalisa Passariello, Linda Cosenza, Riccardo Troncone
BMC Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-24
Abstract: Consecutive patients affected by IgE- or non-IgE-mediated CMA, aged <= 4 years, were enrolled. DBPCFC was carried out with increasing doses of the new Aaf (Sineall, Humana, Milan, Italy), using validated Aaf as placebo. Faecal concentrations of calprotectin (FC) and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were monitored.Sixty patients (44 male, 73.3%, median age 37, 95%CI 34.5--39.6 months, IgE-mediated CMA 29, 48.3%) were enrolled. At the diagnosis clinical symptoms were gastrointestinal (46.6%), cutaneous (36.6%), respiratory (23.3%), and systemic (10.0%). After DBPCFC with the new Aaf, no patient presented early or delayed clinical reactions. Faecal concentration of calprotectin and of ECP remained stable after the exposure to the new Aaf.The new Aaf is well tolerated in children with IgE- or non-IgE-mediated CMA, and it could be used as a safe dietotherapy regimen for children with this condition.Trial registration: The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System (ID number: NCT01622426).
New perspectives for natural antimicrobial peptides: application as antinflammatory drugs in a murine model
Capparelli Rosanna,De Chiara Francesco,Nocerino Nunzia,Montella Rosa
BMC Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-13-61
Abstract: Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an ancient group of defense molecules. AMPs are widely distributed in nature (being present in mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, plants, and microorganisms). They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of a combination of two AMPs (temporin B and the royal jellein I) against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results The temporin B (TB-KK) and the royal jelleins I, II, III chemically modified at the C terminal (RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C), were tested for their activity against 10 different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, alone and in combination. Of the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity. Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity. In vitro, the MIX displayed low hemolytic activity, no NO2- production and the ability to curb the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ to the same extent as acetylsalicylic acid. In vivo, the MIX sterilized mice infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis in eleven days and inhibited the expression of genes encoding the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) and CD64, two important parameters of inflammation. Conclusion The study shows that the MIX – a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard  [PDF]
Rita Kant
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.41004
Abstract: Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today. In fact the art of applying color to fabric has been known to mankind since 3500 BC. WH Perkins in 1856 discovered the use of synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes have provided a wide range of colorfast, bright hues. However their toxic nature has become a cause of grave concern to environmentalists. Use of synthetic dyes has an adverse effect on all forms of life. Presence of sulphur, naphthol, vat dyes, nitrates, acetic acid, soaps, enzymes chromium compounds and heavy metals like copper, arsenic, lead, cad- mium, mercury, nickel, and cobalt and certain auxiliary chemicals all collectively make the textile effluent highly toxic. Other harmful chemicals present in the water may be formaldehyde based dye fixing agents, chlorinated stain removers, hydro carbon based softeners, non bio degradable dyeing chemicals. These organic materials react with many disinfectants especially chlorine and form by products (DBP’S) that are often carcinogenic and therefore undesirable. Many of these show allergic reactions. The colloidal matter present along with colors and oily scum increases the turbidity, gives the water a bad appearance and foul smell and prevents the penetration of sunlight necessary for the process of photosynthesis. This in turn interferes with the Oxygen transfer mechanism at air water interface which in turn interferes with marine life and self purification process of water. This effluent if allowed to flow in the fields’ clogs the pores of the soil resulting in loss of soil productivity. If allowed to flow in drains and rivers it effects the quality of drinking water in hand pumps making it unfit for human consumption. It is important to remove these pollutants from the waste waters before their final disposal.
Adsorption of Dye Eosin from an Aqueous Solution on two Different Samples of Activated Carbon by Static Batch Method  [PDF]
Rita Kant
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.42011
Abstract: Removal of dye Eosin on two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method was studied. Experimental data on optical density of blank solutions of different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L and optical density of solutions after adsorption on activated carbon samples were taken and analyzed. Calibration curves were plotted and the amount of dye adsorbed was calculated. The data was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for two different carbon samples and different concentration values. Constants were calculated from the slope and intercept values of the isotherms. Coefficient of correlation R2 and Standard Deviation SD were also noted. The data fitted well to the iso- therms. It was observed that adsorption decreased with increase in ppm concentrations. Carbon sample C2 showed higher potential to adsorb the dye Eosin as compared to carbon sample C1. Further Carbon sample C2 showed better adsorption in acidic pH as compared to in alkaline pH. From the analysis of the data it is shown that C2 sample has a good capacity to remove the textile dye from the residue water.
Adsorption of yellow dye: Acid yellow RR from its aqueous solution using two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method  [PDF]
Kant Rita
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42016
Abstract: Removal of dye Acid Yellow RR, using two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method was studied. Experimental data on optical density of blank solutions of different concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L and optical density of solutions after adsorption on activated carbon samples were taken and analyzed. Calibration curves were plotted and the amount of dye qe adsorbed was calculated. The data was fitted to Polynomial, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for two different carbon samples and different concentration and pH values. Constants were calculated from the slope and intercept values of the isotherms. Coefficient of correlation R2 and Standard Deviation SD were also noted. The data fitted well to the isotherms. Carbon sample C1 showed higher potential to adsorb the yellow dye. Adsorption was higher at lower concentrations of the solution. Carbon sample C2 showed better adsorption in acidic pH as com- pared to in alkaline pH. From the analysis of the data it is shown that C2 sample has a good capacity to remove the textile dye from the residue water although sample C1 was still better.
Synergistic Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Temporin A and Modified Temporin B In Vivo
Rosanna Capparelli, Alessandra Romanelli, Marco Iannaccone, Nunzia Nocerino, Raffaella Ripa, Soccorsa Pensato, Carlo Pedone, Domenico Iannelli
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007191
Abstract: Temporins are antimicrobial peptides secreted by the granular glands of the European red frog (Rana temporaria). They are 10–14 amino acid long polypeptides active prevalently against gram positive bacteria. This study shows that a synthetic temporin B analogue (TB-YK), acquires the capacity to act in synergism with temporin A and to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Administration of 3.4 mg/Kg of temporin A (TA)+1.6 mg/Kg TB-YK, given to individual mice concurrently with a lethal dose of bacteria (gram positive or negative), rescued 100% of the animals. More importantly, the same doses of temporins, administered one week after experimental infection with a sub lethal dose of bacteria, sterilized 100% of the animals within 3–6 days. Also, it is described an animal model based on the use of sub lethal doses of bacteria, which closely mimics bacterial infection in humans. The model offers the possibility to test in a preclinical setting the true potential of TA and TB-YK in combination as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents.
The Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Protects Mice against the Pathogen and Eradicates Experimentally Induced Infection
Rosanna Capparelli, Nunzia Nocerino, Chiara Medaglia, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Patrizia Bonelli, Domenico Iannelli
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028377
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus, in spite of antibiotics, is still a major human pathogen causing a wide range of infections. The present study describes the new vaccine A170PG, a peptidoglycan-based vaccine. In a mouse model of infection, A170PG protects mice against a lethal dose of S. aureus. Protection lasts at least 40 weeks and correlates with increased survival and reduced colonization. Protection extends into drug-resistant (MRSA or VISA) and genetically diverse clinical strains. The vaccine is effective when administered - in a single dose and without adjuvant - by the intramuscular, intravenous or the aerosol routes and induces active as well as passive immunization. Of note, A170PG also displays therapeutic activity, eradicating staphylococci, even when infection is systemic. Sustained antibacterial activity and induction of a strong and rapid anti-inflammatory response are the mechanisms conferring therapeutic efficacy to A170PG.
Quantum characterization of bipartite Gaussian states
D. Buono,G. Nocerino,V. D'Auria,A. Porzio,S. Olivares,M. G. A. Paris
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Gaussian bipartite states are basic tools for the realization of quantum information protocols with continuous variables. Their complete characterization is obtained by the reconstruction of the corresponding covariance matrix. Here we describe in details and experimentally demonstrate a robust and reliable method to fully characterize bipartite optical Gaussian states by means of a single homodyne detector. We have successfully applied our method to the bipartite states generated by a sub-threshold type-II optical parametric oscillator which produces a pair of thermal cross-polarized entangled CW frequency degenerate beams. The method provide a reliable reconstruction of the covariance matrix and allows to retrieve all the physical information about the state under investigation. These includes observable quantities, as energy and squeezing, as well as non observable ones as purity, entropy and entanglement. Our procedure also includes advanced tests for Gaussianity of the state and, overall, represents a powerful tool to study bipartite Gaussian state from the generation stage to the detection one.
Tunable non-Gaussian resources for continuous-variable quantum technologies
F. Dell'Anno,D. Buono,G. Nocerino,A. Porzio,S. Solimeno,S. De Siena,F. Illuminati
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.043818
Abstract: We introduce and discuss a set of tunable two-mode states of continuous-variable systems, as well as an efficient scheme for their experimental generation. This novel class of tunable entangled resources is defined by a general ansatz depending on two experimentally adjustable parameters. It is very ample and flexible as it encompasses Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian states. The latter include, among others, known states such as squeezed number states and de-Gaussified photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states, the latter being the most efficient non-Gaussian resources currently available in the laboratory. Moreover, it contains the classes of squeezed Bell states and even more general non-Gaussian resources that can be optimized according to the specific quantum technological task that needs to be realized. The proposed experimental scheme exploits linear optical operations and photon detections performed on a pair of uncorrelated two--mode Gaussian squeezed states. The desired non-Gaussian state is then realized via ancillary squeezing and conditioning. Two independent, freely tunable experimental parameters can be exploited to generate different states and to optimize the performance in implementing a given quantum protocol. As a concrete instance, we analyze in detail the performance of different states considered as resources for the realization of quantum teleportation in realistic conditions. For the fidelity of teleportation of an unknown coherent state, we show that the resources associated to the optimized parameters outperform, in a significant range of experimental values, both Gaussian twin beams and photon-subtracted squeezed states.
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