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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7300 matches for " Rishab Gupta "
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The Therapeutic Value of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against Immunogenic Tumor Glycoproteins
Myron Arlen, Philip Arlen, Al Tsang, XuePing Wang, Rishab Gupta
Journal of Cancer , 2010,
Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies developed against immunogenic proteins (Tumor Specific Antigens/TSA's) that are expressed in human cancers, display a unique behavioral pattern. They appear to serve in a dual role. This includes the early recognition of these immunogenic membrane proteins that can serve as diagnostic markers, and the targeting of such markers for the destruction of the tumor, primarily thru ADCC. The monoclonals (mAbs) that we have developed against specific immunogenic tumor membrane proteins have been studied in detail. These tumor proteins, when first defined, were referred to as tumor associated antigens. With the ability of the mAbs to demonstrate therapeutic antitumor activity in those patients with relatively advanced malignancies, the term tumor specific was introduced. Monoclonals that we were able to develop from tumor specific proteins derived from colon and pancreas cancer were found capable of targeting those tumors to induce apoptosis. We were also able to define immunogenic membrane proteins from lung (squamous and adenoCa) as well as prostate neoplasms. Monoclonals developed from these tumor antigens are in the initial phases of investigation with regard to their specificity and antitumor activity. Mabs capable of targeting the malignancies noted above were produced following immunization of BALBc mice with the Tumor Specific Antigens. The hybridomas that were screened and found to express the antibodies of interest appeared for the most part as IgG2a's. It became apparent after a short period of time that stability of the Fab CDR loops as well as the therapeutic efficacy of the hybridoma mAbs could be lost. Stability was achieved by chimerization and or humanization. The resulting mAbs were found to switch their isotypes to an IgG1 subsequent to chimerization and or humanization, when expressed in CHO cells. The monoclonals, so produced, were not only more efficient in controlling tumor growth but minimized the development of a HAMA response. Because of 1) the specificity of this group of monoclonal antibodies in targeting well defined immunogenic proteins that were expressed on the tumor cell membrane,2) their lack of cross reactivity to normal tissue, 3) relatively low toxicity when delivered intravenously, 4) rapid targeting of tumor cell populations (4-6 hrs in vitro) and their 5) ability to destroy xenograft transplants (in vivo) within days of delivery, these mAbs were felt to be ideal for possible use in the treatment of patients with recurrent and or metastatic tumors. Initial clinical studies have been planned for followin
How Best to Handle a Dicey Situation
Rishab Nithyanand,Jonathan Toohill,Rob Johnson
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We introduce the {Destructive Object Handling} (DOH) problem, which models aspects of many real-world allocation problems, such as shipping explosive munitions, scheduling processes in a cluster with fragile nodes, re-using passwords across multiple websites, and quarantining patients during a disease outbreak. In these problems, objects must be assigned to handlers, but each object has a probability of destroying itself and all the other objects allocated to the same handler. The goal is to maximize the expected value of the objects handled successfully. We show that finding the optimal allocation is $\mathsf{NP}$-$\mathsf{complete}$, even if all the handlers are identical. We present an FPTAS when the number of handlers is constant. We note in passing that the same technique also yields a first FPTAS for the weapons-target allocation problem \cite{manne_wta} with a constant number of targets. We study the structure of DOH problems and find that they have a sort of phase transition -- in some instances it is better to spread risk evenly among the handlers, in others, one handler should be used as a ``sacrificial lamb''. We show that the problem is solvable in polynomial time if the destruction probabilities depend only on the handler to which an object is assigned; if all the handlers are identical and the objects all have the same value; or if each handler can be assigned at most one object. Finally, we empirically evaluate several heuristics based on a combination of greedy and genetic algorithms. The proposed heuristics return fairly high quality solutions to very large problem instances (upto 250 objects and 100 handlers) in tens of seconds.
New Approaches to Website Fingerprinting Defenses
Xiang Cai,Rishab Nithyanand,Rob Johnson
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Website fingerprinting attacks enable an adversary to infer which website a victim is visiting, even if the victim uses an encrypting proxy, such as Tor. Previous work has shown that all proposed defenses against website fingerprinting attacks are ineffective. This paper advances the study of website fingerprinting attacks and defenses in two ways. First, we develop bounds on the trade-off between security and bandwidth overhead that any fingerprinting defense scheme can achieve. This enables us to compare schemes with different security/overhead trade-offs by comparing how close they are to the lower bound. We then refine, implement, and evaluate the Congestion Sensitive BuFLO scheme outlined by Cai, et al. CS-BuFLO, which is based on the provably-secure BuFLO defense proposed by Dyer, et al., was not fully-specified by Cai, et al, but has nonetheless attracted the attention of the Tor developers. Our experiments find that CS-BuFLO has high overhead (around 2.3-2.8x) but can get 6x closer to the bandwidth/security trade-off lower bound than Tor or plain SSH.
Games Without Frontiers: Investigating Video Games as a Covert Channel
Bridger Hahn,Rishab Nithyanand,Phillipa Gill,Rob Johnson
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The Internet has become a critical communication infrastructure for citizens to organize protests and express dissatisfaction with their governments. This fact has not gone unnoticed, with governments clamping down on this medium via censorship, and circumvention researchers working to stay one step ahead. In this paper, we explore a promising new avenue for covert channels: real-time strategy-video games. Video games have two key features that make them attractive cover protocols for censorship circumvention. First, due to the popularity of gaming platforms such as Steam, there are a lot of different video games, each with their own protocols and server infrastructure. Users of video-game-based censorship-circumvention tools can therefore diversify across many games, making it difficult for the censor to respond by simply blocking a single cover protocol. Second, games in the same genre have many common features and concepts. As a result, the same covert channel framework can be easily adapted to work with many different games. This means that circumvention tool developers can stay ahead of the censor by creating a diverse set of tools and by quickly adapting to blockades created by the censor. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by implementing our coding scheme over two real-time strategy-games (including a very popular closed-source game). We evaluate the security of our system prototype -- Castle -- by quantifying its resilience to a censor-adversary, its similarity to real game traffic, and its ability to avoid common pitfalls in covert channel design. We use our prototype to demonstrate that our approach can provide throughput which is amenable to transfer of textual data, such at e-mail, SMS messages, and tweets, which are commonly used to organize political actions.
Measuring and mitigating AS-level adversaries against Tor
Rishab Nithyanand,Oleksii Starov,Adva Zair,Phillipa Gill,Michael Schapira
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The popularity of Tor as an anonymity system has made it a popular target for a variety of attacks. We focus on traffic correlation attacks, which are no longer solely in the realm of academic research with recent revelations about the NSA and GCHQ actively working to implement them in practice. Our first contribution is an empirical study that allows us to gain a high fidelity snapshot of the threat of traffic correlation attacks in the wild. We find that up to 40% of all circuits created by Tor are vulnerable to attacks by traffic correlation from AS-level adversaries, 42% from colluding AS-level adversaries, and 85% from state-level adversaries. In addition, we find that in some regions (notably, China and Iran) there exist many cases where over 95% of all possible circuits are vulnerable to correlation attacks, emphasizing the need for AS-aware relay-selection. To mitigate the threat of such attacks, we build Astoria---an AS-aware Tor client. Astoria leverages recent developments in network measurement to perform path-prediction and intelligent relay selection. Astoria reduces the number of vulnerable circuits to under 3% against AS-level adversaries, under 5% against colluding AS-level adversaries, and 25% against state-level adversaries. In addition, Astoria load balances across the Tor network so as to not overload low-capacity relays.
Selected Topics Of Dermatophysics
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1995,
Social determinants of health—Street children at crossroads  [PDF]
Anjali Gupta
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49100
Abstract: 1The term “street children” has been used inter changeably with “children in especially difficult circumstances” in the remaining document. This paper discusses the findings of a research project which is an exploratory cum descriptive study [1] that aims to describe and examine the state and nature of the quality of life of street children accommodated at an unorganised colony in the city of Delhi. It provides a social profile of children and their families, and exploring the needs and aspirations of these children living in especially difficult circumstances. A non-probability sample of 100 street children in the age group of 5-16 years was randomly selected guided by their availability. An interview schedule was constructed and administered to gather data. The statistical analyses comprised frequencies and percentages on all the sections of the interview schedule. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse data from open-ended questions and observations. Case studies were supportive in giving an insight into the lives of children living in especially difficult circumstances. Findings suggest that the quality of life of the participants in this study was depressed due to a lack of access or substandard educational and medical facilities, or absence of emotional support from their poverty stricken families. The existing limited programmes by the government or the civil society for the welfare of street children are lacking in their focus and do not include the voices and needs of the beneficiaries. Although service providers expressed sympathy for street children, many regarded them as deviants, delinquents, future criminals, and a public nuisance. Based on the findings, it has been suggested that the street child phenomenon necessitates a partnership between governmental and non-governmental organizations to provide for policy and legislation, funding and resources to translate programs into concrete plans of action. It has further been argued that such an approach should extend to children using their resourcefulness and creativity, and show that they can be significant in development interventions. Children illustrate both the need for participatory approaches and the problems that arise when perceptions of participants conflict with those of experts.
Ectopic Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)—An Extremely Rare Radiological Finding  [PDF]
Manish Gupta
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.41015

ADPKD is an inherited systemic disorder that predominantly affects the kidney, but may affect other organs including liver, pancreas, brain, and arterial blood vessel. APKPD occurs worldwide affecting about 1 in 500 - 1000 people. Hypertension is the most common manifestation of ADPKD and the major contributor to renal disease progression. A definite diagnosis of ADPKD relies on image testing. Renal ultrasound is commonly used because of its cost effectiveness.

A Rare Case of Acute Cerebrovascular Accident in the Post-Partum Period after Primary Angioplasty during Pregnancy  [PDF]
Ruchi Gupta
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.612118
Abstract: Pregnancy-related acute myocardial infarction is rare, but a serious event. We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in a 33-year-old female with 5 months of pregnancy. Angiography, under abdominal shield, revealed 100% thrombotic occlusion in the left anterior descending artery, which was treated successfully with a stent implantation. The patient was found to have hyperhomocysteinemia within the first week of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Rest of the follow-up was uneventful with delivery of a healthy baby by elective caesarean section at about 36 weeks of gestation. Within 7 days of post-partum period, the patient displayed signs of cerebrovascular infarction and was managed successfully. To the best of our knowledge, the association between primary PCI during pregnancy and cerebrovascular event in the postpartum period has not been reported previously.
New Single Input Multiple Output Type Current Mode Biquad Filter Using OTAs  [PDF]
Manish Gupta
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.74022
Abstract: This paper presents a new current mode (CM) single-input and multi-output (SIMO)-type biquad using two multiple output OTAs and one current follower as an active device and having two grounded capacitors. This SIMO type circuit realizes all the five filter functions as low pass, band pass, high pass, band reject and all pass filter transfer functions simultaneously. This circuit has the unity gain transfer function for all the five types of filters. The circuit enjoys electronic tunability of angular frequency and bandwidth. The 0.18 μm TSMC technology process parameters have been utilized to test and verify the performance characteristics of the circuit using PSPICE. The sensitivity analysis, transient response and calculations of total harmonic distortion have also been shown.
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