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Fatigue and Depression from Early Postpartum to 1 Month among Postpartum Women with Mental Disorders  [PDF]
Nozomi Detsuka, Ai Kawashima, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.712101
Objective: This study aims to ascertain the prevalence of fatigue and depression from early postpartum to 1 month after delivery among postpartum women with mental disorders. Methods: The participants of this study were postpartum women who had delivered a child after a full-term pregnancy and were suffering from a mental disorder. We administered the Postpartum Fatigue Scale (PFS) on days 1, 3, and 4 (to multiparas), and 1, 3, and 5 (to primiparas), and 1 month after delivery to all participants. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Japanese version, was also administered at the same time intervals as PFS except on day 3 after delivery. Results: A total of 7 primiparas and 9 multiparas participated in this study. The average age was 29.0 ± 7.0 years in primiparas and 32.0 ± 4.0 years in multiparas. The PFS scores were higher among the primiparas and peaked at day 1, and more than half the primiparas scored more than 9 points in EPDS. In addition, the EPDS score at 1 month had a strong correlation with the PFS subscale “mental stress situation” (r = 0.818/p = 0.047). In multiparas, the percentage of women who scored more than 9 points decreased. However, their EPDS scores at 1 month were related to the total scores of the PFS, “physical stress situation”, “mental stress situation”, and “sleep deprivation situation”. Especially, the score of “sleep deprivation situation” was higher than those during hospitalization. Conclusion: There was more fatigue 1 month after the discharge among postpartum women with mental disorders. The percentage of women whose EPDS scores were more than 9 points was high in both primiparas and multiparas. This study suggests assisting primiparas and multiparas by controlling the former’s disorder during childcare, and using family support for the latter, so that they get time to rest.
The Influence of Sound Awareness on the Level of Sound Generated during Nursing Activity in a Pseudo-Ward  [PDF]
Tomoko Shimoda, Maria Asai, Rei Yoshida, Ririko Aoki, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.64027
Abstract: Sound generated in a ward can be classified into 1) generated by medical staff, 2) generated by patients and their visitors, and 3) others, such as from in-hospital broadcasting microphones and nurse calls. Among these sounds, the incidence from medical staff, in particular, is reportedly high. The study objective is to investigate whether sound awareness is effective in regulating the sound environment even in a busy situation, such as in a real clinical setting, and to examine the extent to which sound awareness affects sound level. Nursing students were asked to perform a series of nursing activities in a pseudo-ward, and the changes in the sound level generated during the nursing activities with or without time and sound awareness were examined. Under varying experimental conditions, the sound and time levels associated with the nursing activities were measured in the following order: condition 1, without sound or time awareness; condition 2, with time awareness but without sound awareness; and condition 3, with both sound and time awareness. The time to perform nursing activities was longer with sound awareness. However, when aware of time only, the sound level from nursing activities rose by 2.3 dB, whereas when aware of both time and sound, the sound level dropped by 3.0 dB. With both time and sound awareness, there is a distinct drop in the sound level from nursing activities, such as wagon handling, handling of items (trays, bowls), working at the sink, and opening and closing the microwave oven door. These results suggest that even in a pseudo-clinical setting it is possible to regulate the environmental sound through the environmental sound awareness of the medical staff, resulting in a drop in the sound level generated while performing nursing activities.
Preliminary Study on the Effectiveness of Different Durations of Hot Towel Application to the Back during Bed Bathing  [PDF]
Inaho Shishido, Yuka Yamaguchi, Rie Miyata, Sakiko Kutomi, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.712099
The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective duration of hot towel application during bed bathing, based on temporal changes in skin surface temperature, towel temperature, and subjective comfort. As a secondary objective, differences in skin surface temperature and subjective comfort for hot towel application on the back and dry towel wiping alone were evaluated. For the first objective, hot towels were applied on the lower back of 20 healthy adults, for different duration (10, 15, and 20 s), with a 10-s duration found to be the most effective. For the second objective, we compared bed bathing with hot towel application to dry wiping alone, n 21 healthy adult participants. A 10-s hot towel application increased the surface temperature of the skin (+0.5) and provided a perceived sensation of warmth and comfort. In contrast, dry wiping significantly decreased the surface skin temperature (-0.8). In conclusion, hot towel application increased skin surface temperature and improved subjective warmth and comfort during bed bathing.
The State of Fatigue and Sleep among Clinical Nurses in Japan  [PDF]
Naomi Sumi, Naotaka Sugimura, Yuko Yoshida, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.712104
The objective of this study was to investigate the state of fatigue and sleep among clinical nurses in Japan. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to January 2016. The participants were nurses who worked in public hospitals with 500 beds in the major cities and regional cities of Hokkaido. Fatigue was quantitatively assessed using the Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index (CFSI). Among nurses in their twenties, the rate of complaints about anxiety and decrease in vitality were high, which was replaced with complaints about irritability among nurses in their thirties. The most popular complaint among nurses in their forties was general fatigue. There was no difference in complaint ratios concerning the workplace location among nurses in their twenties and thirties, nurses in their forties working in suburban areas complained about fatigue more than their urban area. Nurses with sleep problems related to anxiety have a significantly higher complaint rate for all the eight items of CFSI compared with the nurses who do not have such problems (p < 0.001). This is an intermediate report and is part of a study that aims to develop a health management program for hospital nurses regarding fatigue and sleep.
Investigation of the Burnout Stages Experienced by Nurses Working in Hospitals and Related Factors  [PDF]
Naomi Sumi, Yuko Yoshida, Naotaka Sugimura, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.84022
Background: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the stages of nurse burnout in hospitals (their states of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) as well as factors related to the nurses personal characteristics and coping behaviors in order to obtain suggestions for stress and health management strategies that nurses themselves can employ. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The subjects were nurses employed at public hospitals with 500 beds in 3 cities in Hokkaido, Japan. The questionnaire items for burnout were those included on the Japanese Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), which are designed to ascertain the subjects’ emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of personal accomplishment. In addition, we used 11 items related to physical and mental stress responses on the Stress Coping Inventory and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to determine factors such as the nurses’ basic attributes, whether or not they worked night shifts, and their overtime hours, etc. Results: We received responses from 1461 hospital nurses. Those whose scores for both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were the mean or above were 40.2% of those in their twenties, 35.8% of those in their thirties, and 26.8% of those in their forties or older. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that among those in the group that scored high for both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, the influential factors were stress score (odds ratio 1.889), twenties age group (odds ratio 1.982), thirties age group (odds ratio 1.720), coping behavior: avoidance-focused behaviors (odds ratio 1.140), and engaged in childcare (odds ratio 0.487). Similarly, when looked at by age group, being in the twenties age group and having a spouse were influential factors (odds ratio 3.114 - 4.171).
Relationship between Sleep and Subjective Fatigue in Rotating Shift Nurses: Validation Using a Wearable Device  [PDF]
Yuko Yoshida, Naomi Sumi, Naotaka Sugimura, Fumie Nemoto, Rika Yano
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.84023
The objective of this study was to determine if sleep indicators are associated with subjective fatigue in nurses working in a rotating, two-shift system with a 16-hour night shift, using the wearable device Fitbit One. Subjective fatigue was evaluated using the Subjective Fatigue Symptom Questionnaire (SFSQ), a rating scale developed by the Working Group for Occupational Fatigue of the Japan Society for Occupational Health. Subjects were asked to continuously wear a Fitbit One to obtain the following data: time in bed (TIB), deep sleep time, length and frequency of nighttime awakening, sleep efficiency, waking time, and bed time. Nurses had a mean age and standard deviation of 33.2 ± 7.5 years and had worked as nurses for 9.8 ± 6.2 years on average. Eight nurses were in their 20s (42.1%), 5 in their 30s (26.3%), and 6 in their 40s (31.6%). All participants were female. Participants SFSQ scores calculated from the 9 evenings in the study period were averaged to establish a threshold for categorizing high-fatigue (HF) and low-fatigue (LF) groups. No significant differences were found between HF and LF nurses in terms of TIB, deep sleep time, nighttime awakening time or frequency, or sleep efficiency on any type of day (as classified by shift, day off, etc.). Nurses in both groups woke up significantly later on days off and on pre-night-shift days than on day-shift days. These results demonstrate the variation in sleep patterns of nurses on a rotating, two-shift system between day-shift and night-shift days.
An Algorithm for Global Optimization Using Formula Manupulation  [PDF]
Tsutomu Shohdohji, Fumihiko Yano
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.311221
Abstract: Constrained nonlinear optimization problems are well known as very difficult problems. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for solving such problems. Our proposed algorithm combines the Branch-and-Bound algorithm and Lipschitz constant to limit the search area effectively; this is essential for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems. We obtain a more appropriate Lipschitz constant by applying the formula manipulation system of each divided area. Therefore, we obtain a better approximate solution without using a lot of searching points. The efficiency of our proposed algorithm has been shown by the results of some numerical experiments.
Interactive Fuzzy Approaches for Solving Multiobjective Two-Person Zero-Sum Games  [PDF]
Hitoshi Yano, Ichiro Nishizaki
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.75036
Abstract: In this paper, we consider multiobjective two-person zero-sum games with vector payoffs and vector fuzzy payoffs. We translate such games into the corresponding multiobjective programming problems and introduce the pessimistic Pareto optimal solution concept by assuming that a player supposes the opponent adopts the most disadvantage strategy for the self. It is shown that any pessimistic Pareto optimal solution can be obtained on the basis of linear programming techniques even if the membership functions for the objective functions are nonlinear. Moreover, we propose interactive algorithms based on the bisection method to obtain a pessimistic compromise solution from among the set of all pessimistic Pareto optimal solutions. In order to show the efficiency of the proposed method, we illustrate interactive processes of an application to a vegetable shipment problem.
Remarks on the density of the law of the occupation time for Bessel bridges and stable excursions
Kouji Yano,Yuko Yano
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Smoothness and asymptotic behaviors are studied for the densities of the law of the occupation time on the positive line for Bessel bridges and the normalized excursion of strictly stable processes. The key role is played by these properties for functions defined by Riemann--Liouville fractional integrals.
On $ h $-transforms of one-dimensional diffusions stopped upon hitting zero
Kouji Yano,Yuko Yano
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: For a one-dimensional diffusion on an interval for which 0 is the regular-reflecting left boundary, three kinds of conditionings to avoid zero are studied. The limit processes are $ h $-transforms of the process stopped upon hitting zero, where $ h $'s are the ground state, the scale function, and the renormalized zero-resolvent. Several properties of the $ h $-transforms are investigated.
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