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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19204 matches for " Richard "
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On the Prevention of Obesity and a Philosophy for Healthy Living  [PDF]
Richard Visser
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37128
Abstract: Overweight and obesity have now reached historical, maximal peak values, with nearly one-third of world population suffering from these conditions. We are now witnessing the impact of this epidemic upon the global health status, with non-communicable diseases on the rise. We have also witnessed the shortcomings and failures of past actions taken when obesity is already present. In this essay the author reviews efforts made in the past regarding identification and treatment of obesity, and propose that actions should be taken before the onset of this disease, by motivating people to make intelligent, healthy choices when it comes to food and physical activity. A philosophy for healthy living should become central to the intervention actions, for them to be successful and sustained. Prevention of obesity should involve all those concerned irregardless of their position in society and curricular training, in order to create a multi-lateral, multi-national effort that will protect our families and our children from the consequences of this epidemic.
A Supportive Approach to Supervising Students Reading for a Phd in Systems and Software Engineering  [PDF]
Richard Lai
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326138
Abstract: Supervising a PhD student is a complex teaching task as it involves a very unstructured environment and many intellectual challenges and stimuli, and it often requires a compatible student/supervisor relationship for successful outcomes. It is therefore not surprising that it has been reported that an aspect of teaching and learning that has been overlooked in higher education is research student supervision. Typical problems of poor supervision include: high rates of dissatisfaction with supervisors and high attrition rates and slow rates of completion for students. It has also been reported that there is no set prescription on appropriate and successful supervision; rather, the interactions between quality and style of supervision, and the field of study have all to be considered. It is not easy to know what a student and his/her supervisor should be doing in order to succeed. We are thus motivated to present in this paper our approach to supervising students reading for a PhD in systems and software engineering. This approach is centered on motivating students to learn and to do research by having supervisory activities that support their development throughout their candidature.
The Evolution of Curriculum Development in the Context of Increasing Social and Environmental Complexity  [PDF]
Richard Plate
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.38192
Abstract: The history of curriculum development has been characterized and a series of “crises” with the pendulum shifting between traditionalists’ call for getting back to the basics and the progressives’ focus on the learner. However, tracing this history, one can see a common theme in the criticisms expressed by both parties: the failure of the existing curriculum to meet the demands presented by an increasingly complex society. I follow this theme in order to provide historical context for contemporary calls by scientists and educators for wider use of systems-oriented curricula (i.e. curricula designed to improve systems thinking) at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. With this context, one can view these current calls not as a radical shift of direction, but as a logical next stage in the evolution of curriculum. I conclude with a call for more research assessing the effectiveness of systems-oriented instruction and provide guidelines for enhancing the usefulness of such research in the current United States system.
Sino-French Engineering Curriculums: An Ongoing Process for Elitist Education?  [PDF]
Richard Mariom
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37B048
Abstract: Here is a multisite case-study paper presenting Sino-French engineering education reform cooperation process. This questions the consequences for the introduction of a hybrid framework in a both dynamic and dichotomous innovation context such as Chinese one.
Kant’s Emergence and Sellarsian Cognitive Science  [PDF]
Richard McDonough
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.41007

The paper argues, against current views that see Kant as giving abstract descriptions of cognitive mechanisms (after the fashion of functionalism in cognitive science), that Kant sees mental phenomena as akin to emergent phenomena in a sense traditionally opposed to mechanism. After distinguishing several relevant notions of emergence, the paper distinguishes several of Kant’s basic emergentist theses, including his emergent materialism in chemistry and a species of mental emergence modelled on that chemical emergence. However, Kant’s doctrine of the epigenesis of pure Reason is argued to be Kant’s most fundamental emergentist thesis. The paper argues that Kant’s notion of mental emergence sheds light on some very puzzling aspects of his remarks about the unity of intuition and concept emphasized by Wilfrid Sellars. The paper sketches some of the problems in contemporary cognitive science and shows how a Sellarsian emergentism inspired by Kant addresses some of these problems and provides an interesting alternative to the kind of mechanistic positions that have tended to dominate the field. Finally, the paper locates the present emergentist reading with respect to the perspectivist reading of Kant.

A phenomenological 10-dimension space-time model  [PDF]
Richard Bonneville
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.64025

The possibility of a description of the fundamental interactions of physics, including gravitation, based upon the assumption of 6 real extra dimensions is presented. The usual 4-dimension space-time, a curved surface with the Lorentz group as local symmetry, is embedded in a larger flat 10-dimension space. Through a fundamental assumption about the geometry of the orthogonal 6-d space in every point of the 4-d surface, there are two possibilities for classifying the physical states, corresponding to two types of particles: 1) hadrons, experiencing a gauge field associated to a real symmetry group GH(6), isomorphous to SU(3), which is identified with the strong interaction, and 2) leptons experiencing another gauge field associated with a real symmetry group GL(6), isomorphous to SU(2) × U(1) but different from the usual electroweak coupling. In addition, both hadrons and leptons are subject to weak and electromagnetic interactions plus a scalar BEH-like coupling, with the respective real symmetries SO(3), SO(2), SO(1), isomorphous to SU(2), U(1), I(1). This description can be extended so as to include gravitation; postulating a minimal Lagrangian in the full 10-d space, the equations of motion are derived. They imply the existence of a set of additional vector-type fields which do not act the same way upon hadrons and leptons, thus inducing a violation of the equivalence principle.

Heidegger’s Ereignis and Wittgenstein on the Genesis of Language  [PDF]
Richard McDonough
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43046

The paper argues that the orthodox readings of pgh. 608 of Wittgenstein’s Zettel (hereafter Z608), which holds that Z608 suggests the possibility that language and thought may emerge out of physical chaos in the brain (connectionist processing, causal indeterminism, a pile of sawdust, etc.) cannot be correct. Among Wittgenstein’s signature views are that the philosopher “must not advance any kind of theory” and that everything must be “open to view”. Despite this, the orthodox readings not only attribute theories about hidden processes to Z608, but quite extreme one’s at that. What the commentator should infer is that the kind of centre, chaos, and “arising” of language from chaos inZ608 must be of the sort that is already “open to view”—that is, a “phenomenological” reading, broadly construed. The paper argues that Heidegger’s account of the Ereignis (the opening of the Open, or “primordial truth”), provides a far better model of Z608 than the orthodox neurological interpretation—illuminating both Heidegger and Wittgenstein in the process. Against this background, it is argued that the central point in Z608 is precisely that the centre of a language referenced in Z608 cannot be the neural centre. Just as Copernicus replaced the old centre of the universe, the sun, by a new centre, the earth, so too, the aim in Z608 is to replace the old view that language is centred in the brain with the new view, reflected on virtually every page of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, that language centres around the everyday arena of human behaviour which is “always before one’s eyes”. Z608 is not stating theories about the brain, but is proposing a new “Copernican” paradigm in the philosophies of language and mind, a paradigm which is also found in Heidegger’s account of the Ereignis.

Effects of Depression on Aspects of Self-Care in Type 2 Diabetes  [PDF]
Richard Seides
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612187
Abstract: Aims and Objectives: Depression is common among patients with chronic medical illnesses. The impact of depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes on self-care and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was explored. Background: Depression is known to decrease compliance with most medical regimens. This study investigated depression’s effects on different aspects of compliance with a diabetic regimen. Design: Cross-sectional, correlational, quantitative study. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 126 patients with type 2 diabetes from a diabetes education class. Participants completed depression and self-care inventories. Regression analyses were performed to determine the impact of depressive symptoms on the dependent variables of compliance to diabetes self-care and HbA1c levels. Results: Levels of depression were significantly and inversely correlated with 1) total self-care scores, accounting for 5.1% of the variance, 2) compliance with glucose self-monitoring accounting for 3.4% of the variance, and 3) compliance with diet accounting for 9.3% of the variance. Levels of depression were not significantly related to HbA1c. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are associated with poorer total self-care, poorer glucose self-monitoring, and poorer dietary compliance in type 2 diabetes patients. Depression scores help explain variations in patients’ performance with aspects of compliance to diabetes management. Relevance to clinical practice: Administering a personality questionnaire, perhaps on the initial visit could enable the clinical to know which aspects of diabetes self-care are affected by depression, which would enable the clinician to more closely monitor melancholic patients in the effort to improve glycemic control and medical outcomes.
About Lorentz Invariance and Gauge Symmetries: An Alternative Approach to Relativistic Gravitation  [PDF]
Richard Bonneville
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.616113
Abstract: An alternative presentation of a relativistic theory of gravitation, equivalent to general relativity, is given. It is based upon the restriction of the Lorentz invariance of special relativity from a global invariance to a local one. The resulting expressions appear rather simple as we consider the transformations of a local set of pseudo-orthonormal coordinates and not the geometry of a 4-dimension hyper-surface described by a set of curvilinear coordinates. This is the major difference with the usual presentations of general relativity but that difference is purely formal. The usual approach is most adequate for describing the universe on a large scale in astrophysics and cosmology. The approach of this paper, derived from particle physics and focused on local reference frames, underlines the formal similarity between gravitation and the other interactions inasmuch as they are associated to the restriction of gauge symmetries from a global invariance to a local one.
A Finite Element Model to Investigate the Impact of Torch Angle on an Autogenous TIG Welding Process  [PDF]
Richard Turner
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2017.54062
Abstract: A numerical modelling activity was completed to explore the impact that the angle θ created by the torch from the vertical had upon the thermal and mechanical predictions for a T-joint autogenous TIG welded component. A parametric system of 9 models was set-up to simulate the effects of varying the angle θ by a small, potentially unnoticeable amount to a manual operator. The variations ranged from -8° to +8° away from a nominal default position of torch. The numerical models were created and computed using specialist welding simulation software Sysweld, and pre/post-processing software Visual Environment (both owned by ESI Group). The resulting weakly-coupled thermal and mechanical analyses illustrated a small deflection of angle that the weld bead was penetrating in to the T-joint, consistent with the variation in torch angle, and a negligible variation in peak temperature of 1.8%. The mechanical results however demonstrated a more significant output, namely that the distortion observed upon the vertical plate within the T-joint was predicted to increase by over 50% as result of this small shift in the welding torch angle. However, other mechanical predictions for plastic strain, Von Mises residual stress and distortion on the horizontal plate, were all suggesting only very minor sensitivity (typically less than 5%) to the torch angle variation. However, the predictions for vertical plate distortions demonstrate how difficult a manual TIG operation can be to perform with sufficient process control and repeatability, due to the significant impact that human operator-induced variation has upon some of the mechanical outputs.
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