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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 71587 matches for " Richard Y. Hwang "
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The Ankyrin Repeat Domain of the TRPA Protein Painless Is Important for Thermal Nociception but Not Mechanical Nociception
Richard Y. Hwang, Nancy A. Stearns, W. Daniel Tracey
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030090
Abstract: The Drosophila TRPA channel Painless is required for the function of polymodal nociceptors which detect noxious heat and noxious mechanical stimuli. These functions of Painless are reminiscent of mammalian TRPA channels that have also been implicated in thermal and mechanical nociception. A popular hypothesis to explain the mechanosensory functions of certain TRP channels proposes that a string of ankyrin repeats at the amino termini of these channels acts as an intracellular spring that senses force. Here, we describe the identification of two previously unknown Painless protein isoforms which have fewer ankyrin repeats than the canonical Painless protein. We show that one of these Painless isoforms, that essentially lacks ankyrin repeats, is sufficient to rescue mechanical nociception phenotypes of painless mutant animals but does not rescue thermal nociception phenotypes. In contrast, canonical Painless, which contains Ankyrin repeats, is sufficient to largely rescue thermal nociception but is not capable of rescuing mechanical nociception. Thus, we propose that in the case of Painless, ankryin repeats are important for thermal nociception but not for mechanical nociception.
Adsorption of Surfactant Dispersed Nanometer Magnetite  [PDF]
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2002, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2002.12010
Abstract: Processing of fine particles in a slurry is a difficult problem. Methods to make fine particles magnetic have been developed recently and may offer a solution to this problem. Particles of nonmagnetic materials can be selectively rendered magnetic through surface interactions with magnetic reagents, which are prepared by dispersing nanoscale magnetite (about 10 nm diameter) with surfactants. When adsorption occurs, the magnetic susceptibility of the material is increased. Magnetic enhancement at several orders of magnitude can be achieved. Selectivity of the adsorption can be controlled by the functional groups of magnetic reagents and various surface interaction mechanisms. This approach allows a new degree of freedom for the processing of fine particles, even with conventional magnetic means. Separation and filtration are examples of the applications.
Unburned Carbon from Fly Ash for Mercury Adsorption: I. Separation and Characterization of Unburned Carbon  [PDF]
J. Y. Hwang, X. Sun, Z. Li
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2002, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2002.11004
Abstract: In searching for a low cost adsorbent for mercury removal from flue gas, this study focuses on the utilization of unburned carbons from fly ash as the substitute material for the costly activated carbons. In this first paper of the series, various separation technologies are introduced for the extraction of unburned carbon from different sources of fly ash. The unburned carbons have been efficiently separated from clean ash, which is a value-added product for the concrete industry, with the separation technologies such as gravity separation, electrostatic separation, and froth flotation. Carbon concentrate with a LOI (Loss On Ignition) value of 67~80% has been generated from the processes. Characterization of the carbon products has been performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of the material. It has been found that the unburned carbon particles had a porous structure, which is similar to the activated carbon. The BET surface area of these materials was in a range of 25~58m2/g. The majority of the pores are in the range of macropore, and some parts of the surface were embedded with glass spheres. There is a linear relationship between the LOI value and the carbon and sulfur content in the carbon concentrate. Chemical analysis indicated that the mercury content in unburned carbon was much higher than the other separation products, which suggests that the carbon has certain ability to capture mercury from flue gas.
Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials via field-enhanced carrier dynamics in GaAs
Kebin Fan,Harold Y. Hwang,Mengkun Liu,Andrew C. Strikwerda,Aaron Sternbach,Jingdi Zhang,Xiaoguang Zhao,Xin Zhang,Keith A. Nelson,Richard D. Averitt
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.217404
Abstract: We demonstrate nonlinear metamaterial split ring resonators (SRRs) on GaAs at terahertz frequencies. For SRRs on doped GaAs films, incident terahertz radiation with peak fields of ~20 - 160 kV/cm drives intervalley scattering. This reduces the carrier mobility and enhances the SRR LC response due to a conductivity decrease in the doped thin film. Above ~160 kV/cm, electric field enhancement within the SRR gaps leads to efficient impact ionization, increasing the carrier density and the conductivity which, in turn, suppresses the SRR resonance. We demonstrate an increase of up to 10 orders of magnitude in the carrier density in the SRR gaps on semi-insulating GaAs substrate. Furthermore, we show that the effective permittivity can be swept from negative to positive values with increasing terahertz field strength in the impact ionization regime, enabling new possibilities for nonlinear metamaterials.
Neutrino Oscillations as a Lepton-Flavor-Violating Interaction
Hwang, W. -Y. Pauchy
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: To describe neutrino oscillations in the quantum mechanics sense, we propose to use an off-diagonal neutrino-Higgs (mass) interaction, as discussed recently in a family gauge theory. This extra orthogonal SU_f(3) family gauge theory may help us to resolve a few outstanding puzzles - the question of why there are only three generations, the question of why the masses of neutrinos are so tiny, and the question of why the darkmatter world is so huge (25%) as compared to the visible ordinary-matter world (5%).
Bell Measurement and Local Measurement in the Modified Lo-Chau Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
W. -Y. Hwang
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We clarify the argument on the how (nonlocal) degenerate Bell measurement can be replaced by local measurements in the modified Lo-Chau quantum key distribution protocol. Discussing security criterion for users, we describe how eavesdropper's refined information on the final state is not helpful. We argue that current discussions on the equivalence of the Bell and the local measurements are not clear. We show how the problem of equivalence can be resolved using the fact that eavesdropper's refined information is not helpful for her.
Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication
W. -Y. Hwang
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.057901
Abstract: We propose a decoy-state method to overcome the photon-number-splitting attack for Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution protocol in the presence of high loss: A legitimate user intentionally and randomly replaces signal pulses by multi-photon pulses (decoy-states). Then they check the loss of the decoy-states. If the loss of the decoy-states is abnormally less than that of signal pulses, the whole protocol is aborted. Otherwise, to continue the protocol, they estimate loss of signal multi-photon pulses based on that of decoy-states. This estimation can be done with an assumption that the two losses have similar values, that we justify.
Helstrom Theorem by No-Signaling Condition
W. -Y. Hwang
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.062315
Abstract: We prove a special case of Helstrom theorem by using no-signaling condition in the special theory of relativity that faster-than-light communication is impossible.
Bell's Inequality, Random Sequence, and Quantum Key Distribution
W. -Y. Hwang
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.052329
Abstract: The Ekert 91 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol appears to be secure whatever devices legitimate users adopt for the protocol, as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, this is not the case if they ignore non-detection events because Eve can make use of the detection-loophole, as Larrson showed. We show that even when legitimate users take into account non-detection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the QKD system has been appropriately designed by the manufacturer. A loophole utilized here is that of `free-choice' (or `real randomness'). Local QKD devices with pseudo-random sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality.
Picture Invariance in Quantum Optics
W. -Y. Hwang
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We clarify the controversy over the coherent-state (CS) versus the number-state (NS) pictures in quantum optics. The NS picture is equivalent to the CS picture, as long as the phases $\phi$ in the laser fields are randomly distributed, as M{\o}lmer argues [\pra {\bf 55}, 3195 (1997)]. However, the claim by Rudolph and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 87}, 077903 (2001)] has a few gaps. First, they make an assumption that is not necessarily true in the calculation of a density operator involved with a two-mode squeezed state. We show that there exists entanglement in the density operator without defying the assumption that phases are randomly distributed. Moreover, using a concept of picture-invariance, we argue that it is not that criteria for quantum teleportation are not satisfied. We discuss an analogy between the controversy on the CS versus NS pictures to that on the heliocentric versus geocentric pictures.
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