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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19117 matches for " Ricardo "
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Thinking about Physicalism  [PDF]
Ricardo Restrepo
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22012
Abstract: Physicalism, if it is to be a significant thesis, should differentiate itself from key metaphysical contenders which endorse the existence of platonic entities, emergent properties, Cartesian souls, angels, and God. Physicalism can never be true in worlds where things of these kinds exist. David Papineau, David Spurrett, and Barbara Montero have recently developed and defended two influential conceptions of physicalism. One is derived from a conception of the physical as the non-mentally-and-non-biologically identifiable. The other is derived from a conception of the physical as the non-sui-generis-mental. The paper looks at the resources available to those conceptions, but argues that each is insufficient to yield a conception of physicalism that differentiates it from key anti-physicalist positions. According to these conceptions, if we lived in a world full of things that clearly cannot be physical, we would still live in a physical world. Thus, such conceptions of physicalism are of little theoretical interest.
Two Myths of Psychophysical Reductionism  [PDF]
Ricardo Restrepo
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22011
Abstract: This paper focuses on two prominent arguments claiming that physicalism entails reductionism. One is Kim’s causal exclusion argument (CEA), and the other is Papineau’s causal argument. The paper argues that Kim’s CEA is not logically valid and that it is driven by two implausible justifications. One is “Edward’s dictum”, which is alien to non-reductive physicalism and should be rejected. The other is by endorsement of Papineau’s conception of the physical, immanent in Papineau’s causal argument. This argument only arrives at the physical property-property identities by using a conception of the physical that licenses anything to be reductively physical, including putative core anti-physical entities; thus, leaving Papineau’s causal argument and Kim’s CEA without a reductive physicalist conclusion of philosophical interest.
The Metal/Electroactive Polymer Interface Studied by Surface Resistance  [PDF]
Ricardo Tucceri
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2013.33028
Abstract: The experimental arrangement in this investigation was one in which a poly(o-aminophenol) (POAP) film was supported on a thin gold film electrode whose thickness is of the order of the mean free path of conduction electrons of gold. This arrangement allows one to apply the surface resistance technique to study the electrochemical processes occurring at the metal film surface coated with the polymer film. The dependence of the resistance change of the thin gold film electrode on the external electrolyte composition for polymer thickness lower than 0.25 mC.cm-2, was attributed to a competition, at the gold film surface, between the redox process of the polymer and adsorption of different ion species contained in the electrolyte. This competition reflects a discontinuous character of polymer thickness lower than 0.25 mC.cm-2 at the metal polymer interface. The resistance response of the metal film becomes independent of both the external electrolyte composition and polymer thickness for polymer thickness higher than 0.8 mC.cm-2. Then, POAP thicknesses higher than 0.8 mC.cm-2 seem to be compact enough at the metal polymer interface to prevent the interaction of the species contained in the supporting electrolyte with the gold film surface. The increase of the gold film resistance in going from the reduced to the oxidized state for POAP thicknesses higher than 0.8 mC.cm-2 was attributed to the redox conversion of poly(o-aminophenol) from amine to imine groups. This resistance increase was explained as a transition from specular to diffuse scattering of conduction electrons of gold at the gold poly(o-aminophenol) interface due to a less compact distribution of oxidised sites of POAP as compared with that of the reduced ones. An attenuation of the resistance response of the gold film was observed when the POAP films were deactivated either by contact with a ferric cation solution or prolonged potential cycling. The deactivation of the polymer film was attributed to the creation of inactive gaps within the redox sites configuration of POAP. The surface resistance technique allows one to detect different redox sites configurations of POAP on the gold film, according to the method used to deactivate the polymer films. In this work, it is demonstrated that the surface resistance technique can be employed to study not only the ability of a POAP film to inhibit the
Non-Conducting Poly(O-Aminophenol) Films in the Field of the Bioelectrochemistry  [PDF]
Ricardo Tucceri
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.46A003
Abstract:

The practical use of non-conducting poly(o-aminophenol) (POAP) films in the field of the bioelectrochemistry is discussed in this paper. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of applied potential, solution pH and interferents on the response current of biosensors based on POAP.

Democratic Freedom of Expression  [PDF]
Ricardo Restrepo
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.33058
Abstract: This paper suggests the democratic direction in which the right of freedom of expression should be conceived and applied. In the first two sections it suggests some counter-examples to, and diagnoses of, the libertarian and liberal conceptions of freedom of expression, taking Scanlon (1972) and Scanlon (1979), respectively, to be their chief proponents. The paper suggests that these conceptions cannot take into account clear examples, like fraudulent propaganda, which should not be legal. The democratic conception takes it to heart that the pillars upon which the right of freedom of expression is founded are individual and collective autonomy, the right to know facts of public interest and information necessary for effective democratic control of government. The paper suggests that in a time when private powers seriously threaten these pillars, it is correct for the government to step in to provide the framework in which genuine discussion geared toward fulfilling the objectives of these pillars can take place.
Updating Engineering Education in the Southern Cone: Creativity and Innovation  [PDF]
Ricardo L. Armentano
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326109
Abstract: Most of our secondary school graduates have poor skills in mathematics and sciences. This negative handicap makes them refractory to study engineering or science, thus reaching a minimum of aspirants. The innovation we foresee and wish to promote across our countries will undoubtedly require of the alumni, who possess solid bases to design and create products with an important added value, in order to satisfy demands and exceed the expectations in this era, where technology evolves very fast. Creativity awakens the power of our numbed imagination; it is boldness, adventure, discovering and learning from change. To provoke creativity, few things are as important as the time that is dedicated to the cross-pollination with other fields. Many countries are revising the programs of scientific education and the application of new pedagogic paradigms that tend to revert the downward trend of enrollments. We propose a palliative measure, consisting of an introductory course that strives for the training of students in the Stokes diagram, called Pasteur quadrant, seeking to concentrate the scientific task according to the existent knowledge concepts, in the fact that engineering is the motor of innovation, through increasing and consolidating the creative process, teaching them to think and stimulating their critical mind by means of peer teaching.
Another Undiagnosed Pheochromocytoma Causes Hypertensive Crisis in the Operating Room—What about a Rapid Blood Metanephrine Test?  [PDF]
Carrie Rosenberg,Ricardo Gomez
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.32023
Abstract: Undiagnosed pheochromocytoma is a cause of hypertension intraoperatively. Hypertension from pheochromocytoma catecholamine secretion is potentially fatal and requires immediate treatment with cardiac afterload reduction and preload augmentation for end-organ protection. Diagnosis and management in the acute period can be complex in the context of co-existing disease, other possible causes of hypertension, and the anesthetized patient who is unable to provide historical clues. This case report highlights the plausibility that pheochromocytomas may be more likely to present sub-clinically in elderly patients with severe vascular disease, so we suggest the potential utility of studying whether reduced vascular responsiveness is protective in any way to catecholamine load. Above all, as an increasing number of case reports of pheochromocytoma discovery intra-operatively emerge, many with catastrophic outcomes, the development value and feasibility of a rapid, on-site blood metanephrine test should be considered. Existing diagnostic methods of pheochromocytoma are relatively time-consuming and not useful in the acute situation.
Another Undiagnosed Pheochromocytoma Causes Hypertensive Crisis in the Operating Room—What about a Rapid Blood Metanephrine Test?  [PDF]
Carrie Rosenberg, Ricardo Gomez
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.32023
Abstract:
Undiagnosed pheochromocytoma is a cause of hypertension intraoperatively. Hypertension from pheochromocytoma catecholamine secretion is potentially fatal and requires immediate treatment with cardiac afterload reduction and preload augmentation for end-organ protection. Diagnosis and management in the acute period can be complex in the context of co-existing disease, other possible causes of hypertension, and the anesthetized patient who is unable to provide historical clues. This case report highlights the plausibility that pheochromocytomas may be more likely to present sub-clinically in elderly patients with severe vascular disease, so we suggest the potential utility of studying whether reduced vascular responsiveness is protective in any way to catecholamine load. Above all, as an increasing number of case reports of pheochromocytoma discovery intra-operatively emerge, many with catastrophic outcomes, the development value and feasibility of a rapid, on-site blood metanephrine test should be considered. Existing diagnostic methods of pheochromocytoma are relatively time-consuming and not useful in the acute situation.
Cycloidal Magnetic Gear Speed Reducer  [PDF]
Ricardo Chicurel-Uziel
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2013.34021
Abstract:

A cycloidal speed reducer employing gears with permanent magnets acting as teeth is described. The magnets, which have their axes radially oriented in both the orbiting gear and the fixed internal gear, are inserted in holes drilled in nonmagnetic rims without protruding from the cylindrical exposed surfaces. Because the orbiting gear is not restrained radially, it contacts the fixed gear and rolls on its inner surface. A normal force is developed at the contact point between the gears to balance the magnetic attraction and the centrifugal force of the orbiting gear. The friction available due to this normal force increases the transmission’s torque capacity, which is further increased by elimination of the gap between the gears. Also, the radial load on the supporting orbiting gear bearing is eliminated. A prototype with a reduction ratio of 26 is being tested.

Photographic Image: Thematization of Its Discourses  [PDF]
Ricardo Crisafulli Rodrigues
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.44053
Abstract: This paper deals with thematization as a fundamental step towards the determination of photography image discourses in order to index them. It deals with questions related to photographic reality, polysemy, denotation and connotation, whose comprehension is fundamentally important for the interpretation of photography discourses. It also approaches aspects that have influenced photography analysis towards its thematization, such as the characterization of an image bank, the functions performed by photos, as well as technical and visual quality.
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