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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11157 matches for " Reuben Mpuya Joseph Kadigi "
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Implications of Land Use Land Cover Change and Climate Variability on Future Prospects of Beef Cattle Production in the Lake Victoria Basin  [PDF]
Japhet Joel Kashaigili, Emmanuel Zziwa, Siwa Ernest, Emma Laswai, Bernard Musana Segatagara, Denis Mpairwe, Reuben Mpuya Joseph Kadigi, Cyprian Ebong, Samuel Katambi Mugasi, Germana Henry Laswai, Mutimura Mupenzi, Polycarp Jacob Ngowi, Ibrahim Lwaho Kadigi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.45037
Abstract: This paper presents the lessons learnt from a research project titled “Improving Beef Cattle Productivity for Enhanced Food Security and Efficient Utilization of Natural Resources in the Lake Victoria Basin” which includes Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda. The key focus is on the implications of land use land cover change and climate variability on the future prospects of beef cattle production in this region. The study utilizes information and data from natural resources and climate components to deduce the impact of land use and land cover changes on climate variability. Additional analysis is conducted to summarize the land use and land cover data to carry out analysis on climate data using the Mann-Kendal test, linear regression and moving averages to reveal patterns of change and trends in annual and seasonal rainfall and temperature. The findings reveal that the study areas of Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) have changed over time following land cover manipulations and land use change, coupled with climate variability. The grazing land has been converted to agriculture and settlements, thereby reducing cattle grazing land which is the cheapest and major feed source for ruminant livestock production. Although the cattle population has been on the increase in the same period, it has been largely attributed to the fact that the carrying capacity of available grazing areas had not been attained. The current stocking rates in the LVB reveal that the rangelands are greatly overstocked and overgrazed with land degradation already evidenced in some areas. Climate variability coupled with a decrease in grazing resources is driving unprecedented forage scarcity which is now a major limiting factor to cattle production. Crop cultivation and settlement expansion are major land use types overtaking grazing lands; therefore the incorporation of crop residues into ruminant feeding systems could be a feasible way to curtail rangeland degradation and increase beef cattle production.
Characteristics of Lactation Curves of the Kenya Alpine Dairy Goats in Smallholder Farms  [PDF]
Andrew Gitahi Marete, Reuben Oyoo Mosi, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Joseph Owino Jung’a
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.42013
Abstract: Lactation curves are a graphical representation of the milk production profile of a doe from parturition to drying up. Their shape provides information about the productivity of the doe and offers a means of explaining features of the milk production patterns of each animal. A total of 2732 daily morning milk records from 610 does of the Kenyan Alpine dairy goats’ genetic groups (50% Alpine, 75% Alpine, 87.5% Alpine and > 87.5% Alpine) and local goats (0% Alpine) kept in small-holder farms were used to evaluate factors affecting milk yield and to examine the characteristics of their lactation curve. A nonlinear mixed model was used to fit the lactation curves to all does simultaneously. The Wood’s (1967) equation was fitted within each genetic group and parity to generate genetic group and parity lactation curves. The mean lactation period was 218 ± 46 days and the model accounted for 88% of the total variation. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between genetic groups were observed in their lactation curve parameters. The estimated week of peak milk yield post kidding was: 2, 4, 6, 6 and 8 weeks; and peak yield was 0.32, 0.75, 0.91, 0.99 and 1.02 Kg/day, for 0% Alpine, 50% Alpine, 75% Alpine, 87.5% Alpine and >87.5% Alpine genetic groups respectively. Genetic group did not significantly affect rate of increase to peak yield (P > 0.05) and rate of decline from peak (P > 0.05) or persistency (P > 0.05). Parity significantly affected rate of increase to peak, rate of decrease from peak and persistency (P < 0.01). The month of kidding significantly affected the rate of increase to peak (P < 0.05) and persistency, but not rate of decrease from peak. The synchronization of breeding with season has a practical implication for the maximization of lactation yield when considered in combination with other biological and economic constraints. The superior production of the pedigree animals supports the development of composite breed types in Kenya to take advantage of the fitness of indigenous breeds, the productivity of imported dairy breeds, heterosis, and the potential for selection within the composite to improve productivity in later generations.
Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal
Reuben Joseph,Velmurugan Natanasabapathy,Vasanthi Santhanam,Priya
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ′S′ shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ′S′ shaped root canal.
MB2 in maxillary second molar
Prakash R,Bhargavi N,Rajan Jeyavel,Joseph Reuben
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2007,
Abstract: Occurrence of the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) is a frequent finding. Literary reports have shown it to be found more in the cases of the maxillary first molar. However the maxillary second molars have also been found with this variation in a number of canals. This paper presents a case report on the occurrence of a second mesiobuccal canal or the MB2 in the maxillary second molar.
Spatial distribution of African Animal Trypanosomiasis in Suba and Teso districts in Western Kenya
Samuel M Thumbi, Joseph O Jung'a, Reuben O Mosi, Francis A McOdimba
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-6
Abstract: Trypanosome prevalence of 41% and 29% in Suba and Teso districts respectively was observed. T. vivax infections were most prevalent in both areas. Higher proportions of T. brucei infections (12%) were observed in Suba, a known sleeping sickness foci compared with 2% in Teso. Average nearest neighbour analysis showed the pattern of trypanosome infections as random. An overlay with tsetse maps showed cases lying outside the tsetse infested areas, mostly being cases of T. vivax which is known to be transmitted both biologically by tsetse and mechanically by biting flies.These findings suggest a need to design control strategies that target not just the biological vector tsetse, but also the parasite in cattle in order to clear the possibly mechanically transmitted T. vivax infections. There is need to also review the accuracy of available tsetse maps.Trypanosomiasis, a disease of humans and animals caused by several species of trypanosomes and spread by tsetse flies is a major constraint to livestock production in 37 countries within the Sub-Saharan region. An estimated 45-50 million cattle are at risk of infection in the region, with an estimated economic loss of up to US$ 1.3 billion in cattle production [1]. Its public health importance has led to attempts to control the disease nationally and regionally with initiatives as Pan Africa tsetse and trypanosomosis eradication program (PATTEC) [2]. These attempts rely on repeated large-scale epidemiological studies and environmental surveys, guiding the design and implementation of intervention strategies. The accuracy of these surveys is limited by use of parasitological diagnostic techniques as microscopy due to low sensitivity [3], and the difficulty in incorporating climatic and environmental data known to influence tsetse distribution, and as a result disease spread [4,5].The high costs required to produce tsetse distribution maps through ground-based vector surveys have resulted in few studies looking at the spatia
Comparative evaluation of three PCR base diagnostic assays for the detection of pathogenic trypanosomes in cattle blood
Samuel M Thumbi, Francis A McOdimba, Reuben O Mosi, Joseph O Jung'a
Parasites & Vectors , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-1-46
Abstract: The development of good treatment and control strategies to protect livestock against trypanosomiasis requires accurate data regarding the disease epidemiology. This in turn depends on accurate diagnosis and definitive identification of causative trypanosome species. Most epidemiological studies have relied on parasitological methods for the demonstration of trypanosomes despite their limitations in terms of sensitivity and practicability [1]. Serological tests such as Ab-ELISA detection methods are not reliable for differenting current or post treatment infections [2]. Ag-ELISA assays have also been shown to be of insufficient sensitivity for any diagnostic value [3,4]. Accurate detection of trypanosomes in both the host blood and vectors now heavily depends on the highly sensitive and specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Species specific primers amplifying pathogenic trypanosomes have been designed and used to characterise trypanosomes and in epidemiological studies [5-8]. However, pathogenic trypanosomes are known to occur and overlap in most of the tsetse infested belt [9]. As a result, screening of bovine blood samples from such endemic area may require upto six PCR reactions to test for each of the parasites; Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense Savannah type, T. congolense Kilifi type, T. congolense Tsavo type, T. congolense Forest type and T. brucei species. This is time-consuming and costly, and requires advanced technical expertise. Attempts to combine already available primers into a single multiplex PCR have been discouraging due to lower sensitivity compared to individual species-specific PCR tests and the appearance of non-specific and non expected PCR products with some combinations of primers [10]. Recent researches now focus on multiple species identification using single primer sets based on ribosomal RNA gene sequences [10,11]. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA presents the advantages of being a multi-copy locus (100–2
Optimizing the use of carbapenems in the face of increasing Gram-negative resistance
Reuben Ramphal
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6817
Abstract: Thomas G Slama (Clinical Professor of Medicine at Indiana University School of Medicine) reviews the clinical and economic significance of antibiotic resistance [1]. The Antimicrobial Availability Task Force, created by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, identified six pathogenic micro-organisms, including three key Gram-negative pathogens, as being significant concerns. Dr Slama reviews the role of these Gram-negative organisms in infections and the impact that they have. Acinetobacter has now reared its head in North America after being widely recognized as an important problem in European and Asian intensive care units. It is now considered to be a battlefield organism. He also briefly reviews the prevalence, costs, and mortality associated with infections caused by extended β-lactamase producing bacteria, emphasizing that delays in appropriate therapy result in increased mortality.Dr Slama also discusses the real costs of antibiotic resistance. In addition to patient care costs, there are costs associated with surveillance, testing, and isolation procedures. His commentary on new drug development is worth a read.Robert C Owens Jr (Co-Director of the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine) focuses on the adverse events associated with antimicrobial agents [2]. Antimicrobial agents lead all drug classes in terms of associated adverse events. The adverse events that are characteristic of a particular class of antimicrobials, such as β-lactams, remain manageable. However, the drug classes that contain unique, unpredictable harms, such as the fluoroquinolones, must be viewed with caution and subject to scrutiny. Importantly, although not typically considered an adverse event, the emergence of resistance plays an integral role in the process of deciding on the initial therapeutic regimen. Emergence of resistance becomes an even greater concern because carbapenems (members of the β-lactam class with activity against a broa
Test of the Additive-Dominance Model of grain weight and grain uniformity of oat, Avena sativa L, genotypes.
SOWM Reuben
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2001,
Abstract: An investigation of the genetic mechanisms controlling grain weights for the primary and secondary grains uniformity expressed in primary: secondary individual grain weight (P: S IGW) ratio and % tertiary grains produced was conducted using a backcross experiment'. Two oat, parental genotypes, I.L82-1657 (pistillate) and 10589 Cn (staminate) with different grain weight characteristics were hybridized to obtain 6 backcross generations viz. P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2. The scaling test indicated that overall average, primary and secondary individual grain weights and % tertiary grain weight produced failed to satisfy the additive - dominance model and digenic interactions were detected except for the secondary individual grain weight. Grain weight uniformity expressed as P:S IGW ratio satisfied the additive - dominance model and was highly heritable (h2 narrow sense >98%). However, additive gene effect was important in the control of all the grain weight variables except the primary: secondary grain yield ratio. Dominance effect was important only for the overall average grain weight and the proportion of tertiary grains produced. Attainment of uniformity of oat grains looks promising through genetically improving the P:S IGW ratio but is challenged by the presence of non-allelic interactions in the control of % tertiary grain weight. Tanzania Journal of Science Volume 27 (2001), pp. 121-134
An Iconography of Insularity: A Cosmological Interpretation of some Images and Spaces in the Late Neolithic Temples of Malta
Reuben Grima
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2001, DOI: 10.5334/pia.164
Abstract: This paper proposes a fresh model for interpreting some of the iconography and megalithic architectural forms that emerged in Malta during the Late Neolithic. Recent studies of the relationship between the Maltese archipelago and the world beyond, and between the monumental megalithic sites and their landscape setting, will inform an interpretation of some of the iconography and architectural forms that characterize these sites. Patterns in their use of spatial order, architectural devices and carved reliefs are interpreted as elements in a programmatic recreation of an island cosmology. It is suggested that the prehistoric islanders used these images and spaces to express and mediate concerns with cosmological order.
The semigroup of nonempty finite subsets of rationals
Reuben Spake
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1988, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171288000122
Abstract: Let Q be the additive group of rational numbers and let ¢ be the additive semigroup of all nonempty finite subsets of Q. For X ¢ ¢ , define AX to be the basis of ¢ X ¢ ’min(X) ¢ a and BX the basis of ¢ max(X) ¢ ’X ¢ a. In the greatest semilattice decomposition of ¢ , let ° ’ (X) denote the archimedean component containing X. In this paper we examine the structure of ¢ and determine its greatest semilattice decomposition. In particular, we show that for X,Y ¢ ¢ , ° ’ (X)= ° ’ (Y) if and only if AX=AY and BX=BY. Furthermore, if X is a non-singleton, then the idempotent-free ° ’ (X) is isomorphic to the direct product of a power joined subsemigroup and the group Q.
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