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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11398 matches for " Research "
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Research topics in progress
Brian Hole
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1995, DOI: 10.5334/pia.68
Research topics in progress
Brian Hole
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1996, DOI: 10.5334/pia.85
Inda Sukati,Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid,Rohaizat Baharun,Huam Hon Tat
Contemporary Marketing Review , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to present the relationship between supply chain management (SCM) practices and supply chain responsiveness (SCR), and investigates its relationship with competitive advantage (CA). The data collection instrument used was a questionnaire which was administrated to a total sample of 200 managers. The response rate was 70% while 60% was usable questionnaires. Sample selection was based on convenience sampling. The analyses involved statistical methods such as reliability and validity tests and multiple regressions. The results indicated that SCM practices are related to SCR. The result also suggested that SCR is related to CA.
Standards for Effective Insect Rearing Science and Technology Papers  [PDF]
Allen Carson Cohen
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.64020
Abstract: This article suggests standards for insect rearing papers, to make them more suitable for publication. It provides guidelines for publishing 1) insect rearing-technology papers and 2) insect rearing-science papers. The technology papers offer rearing methodology or practical aspects of rearing system development and optimization. The rearing science papers would include outcomes of rearing experiments developed with controls, variables and are based on explicitly stated rationale and explicit hypotheses. This paper also suggests welcoming papers based on discoveries of various aspects of feeding biology and treating scientifically rearing systems’ components and properties. It is suggested that the treatment of insect rearing systems should be modelled after the extensive and successful practices of the food science and food technology community. The food science model includes welcoming papers that do not involve directly living subjects. It is argued here that the outcomes of following these suggestions will greatly enhance the progress of insect rearing inquiry, and this progress will support a much greater practical and basic science-based understanding of insect biology.
Evaluational Brainstorming  [PDF]
Claudio Bezzi
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14019
Abstract: Among the evaluation techniques based upon group queries (e.g. focus group), brainstorming does not enjoy particular consideration. This might be the result of its origin and development within organizational and managerial domains, traditionally focused more on “idea production” (and problem solving) than on idea analysis within the context of evaluational and social research. This paper presents a development of classical brainstorming, which is quite useful to evaluation, where the traditional idea-producing step is followed by group analysis and exploration of the shared evaluand-specific semantic space. This evaluational brainstorming is the result of a shared understanding of the evaluand by different stakeholders, who can now ascertain their goals and draw cognitive maps to guide subsequent methodological choices and data gathering requirements.
Nurses’ perspective of the research-practice gap in nursing  [PDF]
Clara Agbedia, Ijeoma Okoronkwo, E. Onokayeigho, Mary Ann Agbo
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.42013

This work aims to explore the views of Nigerian nurses on research-practice gap in the clinical practice and the challenges in the utilization of nursing research. The results from in-depth interview and focus group discussion demonstrated that a research-practice gap existed in the clinical setting. The nurses generally did not utilize research findings in their practice. Some useful suggestions were recommended to solve the problem.

Confirmatory Methods, or Huge Samples, Are Required to Obtain Power for the Evaluation of Theories  [PDF]
Irene Klugkist, Laura Post, Freek Haarhuis, Floryt van Wesel
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.49066
Abstract: Experimental studies are usually designed with specific expectations about the results in mind. However, most researchers apply some form of omnibus test to test for any differences, with follow up tests like pairwise comparisons or simple effects analyses for further investigation of the effects. The power to find full support for the theory with such an exploratory approach which is usually based on multiple testing is, however, rather disappointing. With the simulations in this paper we showed that many of the common choices in hypothesis testing led to a severely underpowered form of theory evaluation. Furthermore, some less commonly used approaches were presented and a comparison of results in terms of power to find support for the theory was made. We concluded that confirmatory methods are required in the context of theory evaluation and that the scientific literature would benefit from a clearer distinction between confirmatory and exploratory findings. Also, we emphasis the importance of reporting all tests, significant or not, including the appropriate sample statistics like means and standard deviations. Another recommendation is related to the fact that researchers, when they discuss the conclusions of their own study, seem to underestimate the role of sampling variability. The execution of more replication studies in combination with proper reporting of all results provides insight in between study variability and the amount of chance findings.
What Are the Ethical Problems Raised by the Increase of Cognitive Capabilities in the Defence Structure: The French Legal Structure, the Ethical Position of the French Military Health Service  [PDF]
Marion Trousselard, Frédéric Canini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.64047
Abstract: All contemporary discussions concerning the ethics of human experimentation are grounded in the Nuremberg Code (Macklin, 1992) which listed what for many are the basic principles underlying the ethical conduct of human research. By law all scientific researches that use human research volunteers are governed by regulations prescribing the ethical treatment of these volunteers (Jones, 1993). The present purpose concerns what Ethics is in order to discuss about how military researches are directly affected by these regulations. They particularly concern neurosciences and precisely how to improve cognition for military individuals. Main arsenal was discussed according the risk-benefit balance. Furthermore, implications for medical reflexion were proposed. The French law prescribing the ethical principles for conducting research on humans as animals have been successively defined in accordance with European texts (French Public Health Code, 1994, 2004; Favre, Vallet, Renaudeau et al., 2004). All of these have consequences for conducting the French biomedical research for the defence.
Purpose, Composition and Function of the Research Ethical Committee in the Sarah Rehabilitation’s Hospital  [PDF]
Kátia Torres Batista, Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.72014
Abstract: Introduction: The Research Ethical Committee (REC) is responsible for the ethical evaluation of the projects presented by the scientific community to inform and train the members and researchers. Objective: To describe the purpose, composition and function of the REC of the Association of Social Pioneers (APS) located in the Sarah Rehabilitation’s Hospital (Brasilia, Brazil). Methodology: Descriptive analysis of the REC/APS based on 2013’s collected data was done. Results: The REC/APS is an independent collegiate body, which was established in 1998 in accordance with Brazilian regulation. The main objective is promoting the application of ethical principles and human rights in research involving humans. The REC was composed by chairperson and a substitute; secretary, fourteen regular members and five substitutes. We analyzed 164 projects submitted. The minimum time to a committee member who came up with the first opinion has been estimated as 14 days and the insurance of the consolidation occurred in 30 days. We approved 64 projects, of which 25 had pendencies in the first analysis, one project failed and 99 were excluded. The main problems were related to the writing of informed consent and the multicenter projects that did not include aspects such as costs, schedule and methodological limitations. We observed that the researcher could provide assistance. We considered the important role of the REC/APS to ensure trust between researchers and participants in the research. Conclusion: Despite the purpose, composition and function of the APS research ethical committee, there were encountered many obstacles in its formation, considering monitoring the progress of the research, national normative, international researches and others. The ethical committee does a vital public service with the variety of the specialized views on the meeting. We need to strike a balance and we must weigh up risks and benefits related to knowledge, in its essence, to research’s participant and its relevant social participation.
Research on Chewing Gum: Questions of Ethics  [PDF]
Sonia Vieira
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.73016
Abstract: Guidelines for clinical research and ethics committees are significant contributions to decision made in science and law. But since research methods need to follow the changes and the development of science, guidelines for clinical research have to be continuously revised. Many innovations are perceived for their intended beneficiaries as benefits. Unfortunately, this is not always true. Therefore two issues should be mandatory in discussions of research ethics committees: 1) What constitutes a harmful intervention? 2) What procedures should be established for obtaining data and evaluating their relevance? These questions are too broad and there are no ethical solutions that can leap off a paper. But an example can be worked on. Dental caries is a public health challenge in any country and chewing gum may have an effect with respect to plaque reduction, at least in a short period of time. But sugar chewing gum cannot be used as a positive control in biomedical researches. However, trials referred herein allocated participants for a sugar chewing gum group. Therefore, the aim of this critical review is to emphasize that such a procedure is an example of a conscious disregard for the consideration which is due to trial participants. Were these desirable researches themselves or they had other purposes?
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