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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 41127 matches for " René González Carliz "
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Primary Separation of Antioxidants (Unsaponifiables) the Wet Biomass Microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. and Production of the Biodiesel  [PDF]
Gisel Chenard Díaz, Yordanka Reyes Cruz, Mariana Monteiro Fortes, Carolina Vieira Viegas, René González Carliz, Nelson C. Furtado, Donato A. Gomes Aranda
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.615108
Abstract: This work studies the saponification which directs the wet biomass of algae Chlamydomonas sp. like a previous stage to production of biodiesel. This stage allows the obtainment of fatty acids to produce biodiesel, instead of the gross lipid fraction. In addition of the fatty acids, utilizing the same process one can also obtain the fraction unsaponifiable, these are soluble in apolar solvents and contain mainly carotenoids that can take action as antioxidants and photoprotectors, as they reduce the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The saponification direct and extraction of fatty acids from biomass is faster and reduces the time and cost of operation. The separation of unsaponifiable matter from the biomass humid of microalgae Chlamydomonas sp., was held according to the method AOCS (Ca 6a-40), using extraction Liquid-liquid with hexane as solvent. Subsequently, phase hydroalcoholic or from soap, containing fatty acids, was acidified by addition of H2SO4 and the fatty acids were recovered by the addition of hexane. After acidulation of the soap, necessary for obtaining of the fatty acids was performed the stage of esterification for obtaining of biodiesel. The operating conditions were: molar ratio fatty acid:methanol (1:10), as catalyst 8% H2SO4 calculated in relation to the mass of fatty acid, 200 and reaction time of 90 minutes. The content of methyl esters was 96.8% determined by gas chromatography according to standard EN14103. The quality of biodiesel produced from wet biomass of Chlamydomonas sp. is according to the specification established by standard EN 14214 and RANP No. 14. For the identification of the composition the unsaponifiable fraction was used the method of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The composition of the material unsaponifiable found was of: Carotenoids total (0.76%); Lutein (0.45%); Zeaxanthin (0.07%); α-carotene (0.05%); β-carotene (0.11%); 13 cisβ-carotene (0.05%) and 9-cisβ-carotene (0.03%).
Cultivation of Microalgae Monoraphidium sp., in the Plant Pilot the Grand Valle Bio Energy, for Biodiesel Production  [PDF]
Gisel Chenard Díaz, Yordanka Reyes Cruz, René González Carliz, Rosa C. Vitorino de Paula, Donato A. Gomes Aranda, Marcellus A. G. Dario, Gustavo Saraiva Marass, Nelson C. Furtado
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.77040
Abstract: At present, Brazil imports approximately 11 billion liters/year of diesel. With the interruption of the works in the new Petrobras refineries, the projection is that by 2025 this volume will increase to 24.2 billion liters of diesel/year. In this sense, the biodiesel factory Grand Valle Bio Energy Ltda., located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in conjunction with the FAPERJ makes some investments in technology development for the cultivation and use of microalgae as an alternative raw material in the production of biodiesel. Based on arguments previously said, this work presents the results of the microalgae cultivation Monoraphidium sp. in photobioreactors the pilot plant of the company. The installation with an area of 120 m2 is included with 2 open photobioreactors of type falling film (20 m × 1 m), with a cascade of 18mm and capacity of 4000 L. The lineage cultivated is selected from previous ecophysiological studies that are identified as promising for biodiesel production by having a high potential for the production of lipids. This lineage is maintained at collection of the stock of cultures Laboratory of Green Technologies of the School of Chemistry/ UFRJ. The cultivation was performed in means ASM-1 (Gorham et al., 1964), initial pH 8.0, with aeration and circulation average of 8 hours a day during 19 days. The culture was started with an inoculum of 1 × 107 cel/ml. The lipid production was determined in two phases of growth: on day 4 (exponential phase) and 15 day (stationary phase). For the determination and quantification of lipid content, two different methods were assessed for a sample of biomass, submitted to the same processes the separation and drying. The results showed the methodology of Bligh & Dyer with modifications as the most efficient in extracting lipids. The total lipid content of the biomass Monoraphidium sp. was 30.58%. The growth rate varied between 0.74 ± 0.01 and 0.68 ± 0.02.
Diferenciación socioambiental en áreas urbanas. El caso de La Habana
René A. González Rego
Cuadernos Geográficos , 2003,
Abstract: El presente artículo plantea el desarrollo metodológico seguido por el autor en el desarrollo de su tesis doctoral en la evaluación socioambiental de La Habana según niveles de riesgo social y su relación con la presencia de patrones diferenciados de comportamiento social.
Migraciones y efectos socio-ambientales. La Habana de los 90
René A. González Rego
Cuadernos Geográficos , 2007,
Abstract: el presente artículo hace referencia al efecto social de las migraciones internas en Habana de la década de los noventa del pasado siglo. Ttiene en cuenta la estructura por sexos y edades, racial y laboral, según el lugar de procedencia de los inmigrantes, analizando la posible influencia de estos parámetros en el entorno ciudadano, ya sea por la introducción de hábitos, costumbres o formas de comportamiento ajenos a la ciudad, o bien por las características de la vivienda; elementos todos ellos que contribuyen a diferenciar el ambiente social de la urbe desde el punto de vista espacial. Eestos elementos, en las condiciones de crisis económica actual, contribuyen a su vez a que se agraven los problemas sociales, de empleo y de servicios básicos en la ciudad. el análisis de esta problemática se basa en la Eencuesta Nnacional de Iinternas de 1.995, así como en diferentes resultados de investigación vinculados a esta temática, obtenidos por el Centro de Estudios Demográficos de la Universidad de La Habana y por el propio autor.
?Es posible hablar de tolerancia entre iguales? Algunas consideraciones críticas
González de la Vega, René;
Diánoia , 2010,
Abstract: in the field of moral and political philosophy, it has been unanimously accepted that tolerance is a quality of the agent and it is tested in various circumstances. one of these circumstances refers to the capacity or the adequate competence of the agent to stop, deter or impede the act, which is the object of tolerance. in this context some authors, ernesto garzón among them, defend the thesis that such competence or capacity to tolerate does not necessarily require a hierarchical relationship between the tolerating and the tolerated agent. however, in this article the author, after analyzing the meaning of adequate "competence" or "capacity" and its relationship to the basic concept of tolerance (public or private), criticizes the above thesis and argues that tolerance can exist only in hierarchal relationships of supra and subordination.
State tolerance is an offence, not a virtue
González de la Vega,René;
Co-herencia , 2011,
Abstract: in this article the author makes a simple claim: in present days, several political leaders use the term tolerance to qualify their attitudes towards certain kind of people, practices and cultures. the question is simple: is the tolerant state allowed (morally and conceptually) to speak about tolerance? the thesis defended by the author is that the modern liberal state cannot (because of conceptual reasons) and should not (because of moral reasons) talk about tolerance.
The use of electroconvulsive therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean
Levav,Itzhak; González Uzcátegui,René;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891998000200013
Abstract: en 1995 la ops/oms llevó a cabo una encuesta postal para investigar las características del uso del tratamiento por electrochoques (tec) en américa latina y en el caribe de habla inglesa y holandesa. según los resultados de la encuesta, el uso del tec difiere en las dos subregiones. la técnica se utiliza ampliamente en américa latina y solo esporádicamente en el caribe. asimismo, su uso varía dentro de cada país y ha sufrido cambios a lo largo del tiempo. solamente la mitad de los países de américa latina tienen normas técnicas para la aplicación del tec. la administración de anestesia y de relajantes musculares durante el mismo y la obtención de consentimiento informado todavía no son prácticas reglamentarias en las instituciones psiquiátricas de américa latina. la toma de medidas para subsanar estos déficit ayudará a borrar la estereotípica imagen negativa que esta intervención suele evocar.
The use of electroconvulsive therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean
Levav Itzhak,González Uzcátegui René
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998,
Abstract: En 1995 la OPS/OMS llevó a cabo una encuesta postal para investigar las características del uso del tratamiento por electrochoques (TEC) en América Latina y en el Caribe de habla inglesa y holandesa. Según los resultados de la encuesta, el uso del TEC difiere en las dos subregiones. La técnica se utiliza ampliamente en América Latina y solo esporádicamente en el Caribe. Asimismo, su uso varía dentro de cada país y ha sufrido cambios a lo largo del tiempo. Solamente la mitad de los países de América Latina tienen normas técnicas para la aplicación del TEC. La administración de anestesia y de relajantes musculares durante el mismo y la obtención de consentimiento informado todavía no son prácticas reglamentarias en las instituciones psiquiátricas de América Latina. La toma de medidas para subsanar estos déficit ayudará a borrar la estereotípica imagen negativa que esta intervención suele evocar.
Es posible hablar de tolerancia entre iguales? Algunas consideraciones críticas Could Tolerance between Equals Exist? Some Critical Thoughts
René González de la Vega
Diánoia , 2010,
Abstract: En la literatura de filosofía moral y política es común que se acepte la tolerancia como una propiedad disposicional, la cual se somete a prueba en repetidas "circunstancias"; una de éstas se refiere a la capacidad o competencia adecuada para poder detener, frenar u obstaculizar el acto objeto de tolerancia. En ese sentido, algunos autores, como Ernesto Garzón, defienden que dicha competencia o capacidad para tolerar no requiere necesariamente la existencia de una relación de supra-subordinación con la persona objeto de tolerancia. No obstante, tras un análisis de lo que se entiende por "competencia" o "capacidad" adecuada y cómo estos términos se articulan con la idea conceptual básica de la tolerancia (pública o privada), se hace una crítica a esta tesis sosteniendo que, para poder hablar de tolerancia, se requiere necesariamente que haya una relación jerárquica de supra-subordinación. In the field of moral and political philosophy, it has been unanimously accepted that tolerance is a quality of the agent and it is tested in various circumstances. One of these circumstances refers to the capacity or the adequate competence of the agent to stop, deter or impede the act, which is the object of tolerance. In this context some authors, Ernesto Garzón among them, defend the thesis that such competence or capacity to tolerate does not necessarily require a hierarchical relationship between the tolerating and the tolerated agent. However, in this article the author, after analyzing the meaning of adequate "competence" or "capacity" and its relationship to the basic concept of tolerance (public or private), criticizes the above thesis and argues that tolerance can exist only in hierarchal relationships of supra and subordination.
A complete 3-dimensional Blaschke-Santaló diagram
René Brandenberg,Bernardo González Merino
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We present a complete 3-dimensional Blaschke-Santal\'o diagram for planar convex bodies with respect to the four classical magnitudes inner and outer radius, diameter and (minimal) width in euclidean spaces.
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