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Polymorphisms in genes of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism: evidence for Alzheimer's disease?
Heike K?lsch,Reinhard Heun
Neurobiology of Lipids , 2003,
Abstract: Cholesterol is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This commentary discusses the relevance of the polymorphisms in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism for the risk of AD, and explains why greater number of and larger studies are needed to provide solid evidence on whether such genes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.
麦类作物学报 , 1991, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.1991.06.101
Abstract: 本研究针对黑麦可能提供白粉病新的抗源,对最近育成的一组小麦-黑麦附加系、代换系和易位系进行了分析.同时,对以上各系与一组带有抗性基因Pm1-9和Mlk的品种/品系进行了比较.四倍体和六倍体的Thatcher小麦,对小麦白粉病高度感染,而由四倍体Thatcher和Prolific黑麦衍生而来的小黑麦系,则高度抗病.黑麦染色体1R、4R和7R不决定供试的白粉病分离物的任何抗性.2D/2R代换系的白粉病抗性高度有效,而假设来源于2R染色体的Pm7基因,则主要表现为感病反应.对带有Pm7的Transec小麦进行细胞学分析(采用GiemsaC-显带技术进行染色体鉴定)的结果表明,"Transec"易位包括一条小麦染色体4B的完整短臂和该条染色体长臂大约一半的近端区以及由黑麦染色体5R的长臂远端区衍生来的黑麦片段.结构异染色质经不同的染色后,2D/2R代换系的染色体2R显示出特定的C-带型.黑麦染色体6R决定着对所有供试白粉病分离物的绝对抗性,同时还表明,这种抗性基因就位于6R染色体的长臂上.对于此种抗性,笔者提出了临时基因符号MlP6L.此外,笔者还提出了利用6BS/6RL小麦-黑麦易位系转易这种抗性基因的途径.
麦类作物学报 , 1991, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.1991.04.060
Abstract: 农作物对真菌病害的抗性可分为两类,一是数量抗性(QR),二是质量抗性,而质量抗性常被病菌群体中相应的毒性小种所克服.数量抗性的遗传研究始于20世纪70年代.本文将对在作物育种中有重要意义的文献予以评述,并着重回答以下问题:1.在自交和异交作物抵抗专性及兼性寄生菌方面,哪些遗传组分决定着数量抗性?2.数量抗性所涉及的基因数目有多少?3.选择对数量抗性是否有效?
Leading Multicultural Teams in the PR China  [PDF]
Reinhard Meckl, Matthias Johanning
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.31007

This paper examines the effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership on the performance of multicultural teams in the People’s Republic (PR) of China. 42 multicultural teams with a total of 158 team members employed at German companies in the PR China completed a questionnaire which has been analyzed to show the extent to which these three leadership styles moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and social integration, satisfaction, communication effectiveness and conflict. To evince an explanation for discrepancies it has also been examined whether all three leadership styles justified mediating effects. The relationship between cultural diversity and several team variables has been explained through the resource-oriented theory, the information processing theory, the similarity-attraction theory and the social identity and social categorization theory. The effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership is based on the theory of charismatic leadership from Bass and its related “Full Range of Leadership”. Results suggest transformational, transactional and passive leadership moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and conflict. In addition, it has been shown that transactional leadership mediates all four group variables. This study identifies practical implications and proposes an agenda for future research.

Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions in Depressive Patients—A Randomized Control Study  [PDF]
Reinhard Pietrowsky, Johannes Mikutta
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312158
Abstract: Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive patients for three weeks without any other concomitant psychotherapy. Seventeen depressive patients were randomly assigned to either the PP group or the control group. Patients in the PP group wrote down the best possible self for one week and then three good things for another two weeks. Patients in the control group wrote down images of the future of mankind for one week and early memories for two weeks. Prior to the intervention and again after it had finished, depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, optimism, and resilience were assessed. While in both groups of patients well-being and resilience increased and depressive symptoms declined, the decline of depressive symptoms and the increase of positive affect and resilience were more pronounced in the PP group. The results support the notion that even a short intervention using PP alone alleviates depressive symptoms and increases well-being. Although the effects were of marginal significance, this may be attributed to the relatively small sample size. Likewise, the use of an Intent-to-Treat analysis may have affected the PP group more than the control group, indicating an underestimation of the potency of PP in the present study.
Optimizing the Timing of M&A Decisions—An Analysis of Pro- and Anticyclical M&A Behavior in Germany  [PDF]
Irmi Eisenbarth, Reinhard Meckl
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.49060
Abstract: If one looks at the market for corporate control from a research perspective, it is especially interesting to analyze whether the decision-makers in the companies take advantage of phases with low asset prices to buy out other companies (behaving anticyclically), or whether they tend to buy during phases with high asset prices—buying procyclically. The aim of this article is to test whether there is a correlation between a company’s M&A behavior and the situation in the capital market. Whether M&A success can be seen as dependent on different market valuations and whether differences in terms of the various factors which influence pro- and anticyclical M&A transactions can be determined. The analysis is done with regard to the development of the DAX, the German stock exchange market index. 78 transactions by German purchasing companies during the period 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. The results show that M&A behavior is a procyclical phenomenon and that anticyclical transactions are more successful than procyclical ones in the long term.
Comparison of the Clinical Efficacy of Four Different Liposomal Sprays for the Treatment of Dry Eye  [PDF]
Andreas Hueck, Reinhard Wehrmann
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2017.72015
Abstract: Purpose: To compare the clinical efficacy of four different liposomal sprays for dry eye treatment. Methods: Prospective randomized consecutive intraindividual comparison enrolling 166 patients (age, 18 - 93 years). Patients were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups, receiving one spray in their right eye and another one in their left eye: Ocuvers Hyaluron (OH) (87 eyes) and Ocuvers Lipostamin (OL) (80 eyes) (Innomedis AG), and Tears Again (TA) (80 eyes) and Tears Again Sensitive (TAS) (85 eyes) (Optima Pharmaceutical). Symptomatology was evaluated with the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Subjective comfort, tear break up time (TBUT), redness, tear meniscus, application comfort and smell were evaluated during a 30-minute follow-up. Results: Smell for TA and TAS was significantly fattier compared to OH and OL (p < 0.001). After application of TA, patients reported significantly more burning sensations compared to the rest of the sprays (p < 0.001). At 10 minutes, subjective comfort (p ≤ 0.027) and TBUT (p ≤ 0.004) were significantly better with OH and OL compared to TA and TAS. At 30 minutes, the same trends were observed, with also significantly less ocular redness with OL compared to the rest (p = 0.043). Significant correlations were found between baseline OSDI and changes in ocular redness at 10 (r = -0.287, p = 0.011) and 30 minutes (r = -0.237, p = 0.037) after the application of OL. Conclusions: The four evaluated liposome sprays may be useful for dry eye treatment, with higher subjective comfort and less dry eye signs using the Ocuvers sprays. The use of OL may be a better treatment option for severe dry eye.
Current HIV Prevention Policies Are Jeopardizing the “End of AIDS” Project: Realities Counteract Liberal Visions  [PDF]
Reinhard H. Dennin
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.72012
Abstract: Here I discuss a series of in adequate decisions made by governments of, e.g., the European Union when designing strategies aimed at preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although there have been minor successes in curbing the spread of HIV, here I focus on the multiple failings that have indirectly fostered the spread of HIV. I propose that a novel, programmatic set of strategies are needed to prevent the spread of HIV, which will be necessary to meet aims of the End of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) project. I also discuss barriers to the End of AIDS project, including financial burdens and noncompliance, in particular of the “at-risk” termed population in resource rich countries, with current prevention strategies. The aim is (i) to foster supporting for the UNAIDS project by customized prevention concepts; and (ii) to raise awareness for the challenges yet to come, should the UNAIDS project fail.
Replication by the Epistasis Project of the interaction between the genes for IL-6 and IL-10 in the risk of Alzheimer's disease
Onofre Combarros, Cornelia M van Duijn, Naomi Hammond, Olivia Belbin, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Mario Cortina-Borja, Michael G Lehmann, Yurii S Aulchenko, Maaike Schuur, Heike K?lsch, Reinhard Heun, Gordon K Wilcock, Kristelle Brown, Patrick G Kehoe, Rachel Harrison, Eliecer Coto, Victoria Alvarez, Panos Deloukas, Ignacio Mateo, Rhian Gwilliam, Kevin Morgan, Donald R Warden, A David Smith, Donald J Lehmann
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-6-22
Abstract: We examined this interaction in the Epistasis Project, a collaboration of 7 AD research groups, contributing DNA samples from 1,757 cases of AD and 6,295 controls.We replicated the interaction. For IL6 rs2069837 AA × IL10 rs1800871 CC, the synergy factor (SF) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.41, p = 0.01), controlling for centre, age, gender and apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4) genotype. Our results are consistent between North Europe (SF = 1.7, p = 0.03) and North Spain (SF = 2.0, p = 0.09). Further replication may require a meta-analysis. However, association due to linkage disequilibrium with other polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of these genes cannot be excluded.We suggest that dysregulation of both IL-6 and IL-10 in some elderly people, due in part to genetic variations in the two genes, contributes to the development of AD. Thus, inflammation facilitates the onset of sporadic AD.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by a chronic inflammatory process, including activation of microglia and astrocytes that express pro-inflammatory cytokines [1,2]. It is unclear to what extent this inflammation is a reaction to the pathology of AD, and to what extent it contributes to the onset or progression of the disease.Two multi-functional cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), may be relevant to this question. IL-6 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine [3], while IL-10 acts to limit inflammation in the brain [4]. Both are produced by activated microglia and astrocytes [3,4]. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1800795 (-174G/C) and rs1800896 (-1082G/A), in the regulatory regions of the genes, IL6 and IL10, respectively, have been widely studied. However, the ongoing AlzGene meta-analyses of the two SNPs [5]http://www.alzforum.org/res/com/gen/alzgene/ webcite are both currently negative (4 July 2009): pooled odds ratios for Caucasians in single-locus analyses of IL6-174C versus G alleles = 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.79–1.08,
Water management simulation games and the construction of knowledge
M. Rusca, J. Heun,K. Schwartz
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years, simulations have become an important part of teaching activities. The reasons behind the popularity of simulation games are twofold. On the one hand, emerging theories on how people learn have called for an experienced-based learning approach. On the other hand, the demand for water management professionals has changed. Three important developments are having considerable consequences for water management programmes, which educate and train these professionals. These developments are the increasing emphasis on integration in water management, the characteristics and speed of reforms in the public sector and the shifting state-society relations in many countries. In response to these developments, demand from the labour market is oriented toward water professionals who need to have both a specialist in-depth knowledge in their own field, as well as the ability to understand and interact with other disciplines and interests. In this context, skills in negotiating, consensus building and working in teams are considered essential for all professionals. In this paper, we argue that simulation games have an important role to play in (actively) educating students and training the new generation of water professionals to respond to the above-mentioned challenges. At the same time, simulations are not a panacea for learners and teachers. Challenges of using simulation games include the demands it places on the teacher. Setting up the simulation game, facilitating the delivery and ensuring that learning objectives are achieved require considerable knowledge and experience as well as considerable time-inputs of the teacher. Moreover, simulation games usually incorporate a case-based learning model, which may neglect or underemphasize theories and conceptualizations. For simulations to be effective, they have to be embedded in this larger theoretical and conceptual framework. Simulations, therefore, complement rather than substitute traditional teaching methods.
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