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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 571 matches for " Reiner Eckmann "
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Impact of Fishing and Stocking Practices on Coregonid Diversity  [PDF]
Orlane Anneville, Emilien Lasne, Jean Guillard, Reiner Eckmann, Jason D. Stockwell, Christian Gillet, Daniel L. Yule
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.611108
Abstract: Fish species diversity can be lost through interacting stressors including habitat loss, stocking and overfishing. Although a multitude of stressors have played a role in the global decline of coregonid (Coregonus spp.) diversity, a number of contemporary studies have identified habitat loss stemming from eutrophication as the primary cause. Unfortunately, reconstructing the role of fishing and stocking practices can be difficult, because these records are incomplete or appear only in hard-to-access historic grey literature. Based on an illustrative set of historic and contemporary studies, we describe how fisheries management practices may have contributed to coregonid diversity loss in European and North American lakes. We provide case studies examining how fishing and stocking may reduce coregonid diversity through demographic decline and introgressive hybridization. In some lakes, fisheries management practices may have led to a loss of coregonid diversity well before issues with habitat degradation manifested. Our review suggests that fish conservation policies could beneficially consider the relative importance of all stressors, including management practices, as potential drivers of diversity loss.
DNA-Methylation Profiling of Fetal Tissues Reveals Marked Epigenetic Differences between Chorionic and Amniotic Samples
Christel Eckmann-Scholz, Susanne Bens, Julia Kolarova, Sina Schneppenheim, Almuth Caliebe, Simone Heidemann, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Monika Kautza, Walter Jonat, Reiner Siebert, Ole Ammerpohl
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039014
Abstract: Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS) and 16 amniotic cell (AC) samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG) content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Conflicting results of prenatal FISH with different probes for Down's Syndrome critical regions associated with mosaicism for a de novo del(21)(q22) characterised by molecular karyotyping: Case report
Christel Eckmann-Scholz, Stefan Gesk, Inga Nagel, Andrea Haake, Susanne Bens, Simone Heidemann, Monika Kautza, Christian Timke, Reiner Siebert, Almuth Caliebe
Molecular Cytogenetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8166-3-16
Abstract: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on uncultured amniotic fluid cells is a widely used means for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of common aneuploidies. Different commercial suppliers provide FISH assays for the detection of trisomies involving the Down syndrome critical regions (DSCR) in 21q22 which have been extensively validated in single institution series [1,2] and multicenter trials [3]. Interpretation of FISH results may be difficult if unexpected results are detected which for example can be caused by structural aberrations or mosaicism. Here we present a case in which rapid FISH screening with different commercial probes for the Down's syndrome critical regions yielded conflicting results with regard to a partial monosomy 21q. Moreover, by extensive conventional and molecular karyotyping we show this diagnostic problem to be caused by a de novo del(21)(q22) as part of a mosaic karyotype. Deletion of 21q is a rare chromosome disorder. In a recent review of 23 patients of whom reliable mapping data are available the variable phenotype depending on the deleted region became obvious [4]. Intrauterine growth retardation which was the initial presentation of the proband seems to be a constant finding.A 35-year-old woman presented at 24+0 weeks of gestation of her fourth pregnancy. She had suffered two early pregnancy losses. The third pregnancy ended in the delivery of a healthy boy. Medical and family history of the proposita and her partner were unremarkable. First trimester-screening including ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry had been normal (adjusted risks +21 = 1:1839; +18 = 1:610; +13 = 1:3515). In the 25th week, ultrasound revealed symmetric foetal retardation with cerebral ventriculomegaly, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, short nasal bone and hyperechogenic bowel. Therefore, amniocentesis was performed and foetal karyotyping initiated. For rapid screening for aneuploidies, FISH was performed according to standard methods on uncultur
Case Series of Methylene Blue Injections for the Treatment of Zygapophysial and Sacroiliac Joint Pain: Results of 5 Cases  [PDF]
Jay Parekh,Maxim Eckmann,Somayaji Ramamurthy
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.36066
Abstract: Introduction: Shealy is credited with the use of fluoroscopy guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for denervation of the lumbar zygapophysial (L-Z) joint in the mid-1970’s. Peng and colleagues described the use of methylene blue (MB) injection for discogenic pain; MB may work through direct neurotoxicity or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. We present a retrospective case series of five patients with L-Z or SI joint pain where MB used as an alternative to RFA. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series of five patients who received MB for the chemical neurolysis of either medial or/and lateral branch’s for zygapophysial or SI joint pain. All of the MB blocks were done under fluoroscopic guidance and performed in the same manner as diagnostic medial and lateral branch blocks but with care to consider the medication as neurotoxic in relation to spinal nerves. On average 1cc of 0.05% final concentration MB was injected per nerve or sacral foraminal level. Results: Four of the five patients had significant lasting pain relief. Discussion: Chemical neurolysis has potential to achieve technical success in these refractory cases of spine pain possibly due to spread over a broader area; for this same reason the procedure should be performed carefully under fluoroscopic guidance.
Case Series of Methylene Blue Injections for the Treatment of Zygapophysial and Sacroiliac Joint Pain: Results of 5 Cases  [PDF]
Jay Parekh, Maxim Eckmann, Somayaji Ramamurthy
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.36066
Abstract:

Introduction: Shealy is credited with the use of fluoroscopy guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for denervation of the lumbar zygapophysial (L-Z) joint in the mid-1970’s. Peng and colleagues described the use of methylene blue (MB) injection for discogenic pain; MB may work through direct neurotoxicity or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. We present a retrospective case series of five patients with L-Z or SI joint pain where MB used as an alternative to RFA. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series of five patients who received MB for the chemical neurolysis of either medial or/and lateral branch’s for zygapophysial or SI joint pain. All of the MB blocks were done under fluoroscopic guidance and performed in the same manner as diagnostic medial and lateral branch blocks but with care to consider the medication as neurotoxic in relation to spinal nerves. On average 1cc of 0.05% final concentration MB was injected per nerve or sacral foraminal level. Results: Four of the five patients had significant lasting pain relief. Discussion: Chemical neurolysis has potential to achieve technical success in these refractory cases of spine pain possibly due to spread over a broader area; for this same reason the procedure should be performed carefully under fluoroscopic guidance.

Treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections caused by resistant bacteria: value of linezolid, tigecycline, daptomycin and vancomycin
Christian Eckmann, Matthew Dryden
European Journal of Medical Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/2047-783x-15-12-554
Abstract: Tigecycline is an alternative in polymicrobial infections except by diabetic foot infections. Daptomycin might be a treatment option for cases of cSSTI with MRSA bacteremia. cSSTI caused by resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a matter of great concern. The development of new antibiotics in this area is an urgent priority to avoid the risk of a postantibiotic era with no antimicrobial treatment options. An individual approach for every single patient is mandatory to evaluate the optimal antimicrobial treatment regimen.Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are amongst the most common bacterial infections in humans. They represent one of the most common indications for antibiotic treatment and represent about 10% of hospital admissions in the US [1]. Amongst the broad spectrum of skin and soft tissue infections treatment is mainly delivered out of hospital. SSTI have a broad range of aetiology, clinical manifestation and severity [2,3]. At one end of the spectrum the outcome may be spontaneous resolution without antibiotics, but at the other end it may present with sepsis with lethal outcome. SSTI at 10% is the third most frequent focus for severe sepsis or septic shock, after pneumonia (5560%) and abdominal infections (25%) [4].This review aims to discuss the currently available antibiotics active against resistant bacteria (primarily MRSA, VRE, ESBL-producing bacteria and carbapenem-resistant strains) in terms of mechanisms of action, eradication rates and most important clinical outcome.The classification of skin and soft tissue infections is often confusing. Specific SSTI can be sub-categorised according to the causative microbial agents, the main tissue layer affected (i.e. skin, subcutis, fascia and muscle) or according to clinical signs and symptoms. It is to be differentiated, whether the infection is localised or generalised. Useful classifications are those which differentiate SSTI according to urgency of surgical intervention [5,6]. Three categories can be
Non-equilibrium steady states
Jean-Pierre Eckmann
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The mathematical physics of mechanical systems in thermal equilibrium is a well studied, and relatively easy, subject, because the Gibbs distribution is in general an adequate guess for the equilibrium state. On the other hand, the mathematical physics of {\em non-equilibrium} systems, such as that of a chain of masses connected with springs to two (infinite) heat reservoirs is more difficult, precisely because no such {\em a priori} guess exists. Recent work has, however, revealed that under quite general conditions, such states can not only be shown to exist, but are {\em unique}, using the H\"ormander conditions and controllability. Furthermore, interesting properties, such as energy flux, exponentially fast convergence to the unique state, and fluctuations of that state have been successfully studied. Finally, the ideas used in these studies can be extended to certain stochastic PDE's using Malliavin calculus to prove regularity of the process.
A Topological Glass
Jean-Pierre Eckmann
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10955-007-9387-9
Abstract: We propose and study a model with glassy behavior. The state space of the model is given by all triangulations of a sphere with $n$ nodes, half of which are red and half are blue. Red nodes want to have 5 neighbors while blue ones want 7. Energies of nodes with different numbers of neighbors are supposed to be positive. The dynamics is that of flipping the diagonal of two adjacent triangles, with a temperature dependent probability. We show that this system has an approach to a steady state which is exponentially slow, and show that the stationary state is unordered. We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses. Finally, we show that the evolution can be described as that of a rarefied gas with spontaneous generation of particles and annihilating collisions.
The Use of Organic Waste as an Eco-Efficient Energy Source in Ghana  [PDF]
Robert Ohene Adu, Reiner Lohmueller
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37066
Abstract: The problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been an issue of global concern in recent times and has engaged governments and local authorities in their quest to manage solid waste in a sustained manner. One proposition which has the potential of solving three problems at the same time is the use of the biodegradable component of MSW as a source of energy to augment energy supply. This research therefore assessed the use of the organic fraction of MSW as an eco-efficient energy source in Ghana. A study of Ghana’s solid waste profile was undertaken and the fraction of biodegradable component was found to be approximately 60%, with a heating value of 17 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50%. Moreover, it was established that 0.5 kg of solid waste is generated daily by each Ghanaian, meaning that about 5610 tons of the organic fraction could be made available every day to generate energy to the national grid. It was also established that waste disposal in Ghana is largely by way of open dumping as primary collection of waste from households in Ghana is limited to high-income communities which represent only 11% of the population, whereas secondary collection from transfer points to the disposal facilities is inefficient. With representative power output of 1.66 MWh/tonne a total of 3320 GWh of energy can be produced annually from the 4 proposed plants, generating net revenue of about $111,600,000. As an optimizing step, a waste incineration scheme was suggested in which the off-gases produced from organic waste combustion could be used to produce electrical power with steam in a multi-stage heat exchanger-steam turbine configuration, and the off gases again used for pre-drying of the organic waste in a cycle. A state-of-the art waste incineration technology was used as a model and adapted to suit Ghana’s tropical conditions. MSW combustion releases less CO2 for the same power output (837 Ib/MWh) than any of the other conventional fuels do, and is therefore a good fuel for the fight against climate change.
Amino-acid substitution and protein function
Reiner Veitia
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-7-reports0020
Abstract: The method (see Methodological innovations for details) was first evaluated using a set of known deleterious amino-acid replacements in human proteins. The analysis produced 10-30% false-negatives; that is, changes that were predicted not to be deleterious. On analysis of a data set consisting of human proteins and their orthologs from other mammals, the method predicted that about 9% of the substitutions are damaging, thus providing an estimate of the rate of false-positive prediction (base substitutions that have been fixed in functional proteins in different lineages cannot be considered deleterious). Applying the methodto data on well-characterized polymorphisms (polymorphisms in which the allele frequency, three-dimensional structure of the protein and disease association are all known), 73% of damaging changes were successfully predicted. The authors also estimate that an average human genome carries approximately 20,000 heterozygous changes with respect to a human consensus sequence; out of these 'substitutions', about 2,000 would be predicted to be deleterious. The authors provide theoretical and experimental evidence that most of the deleterious amino-acid replacements are not expected to abolish protein function, however. Much work is required in order to achieve a better performance in prediction, even if all currently available information is taken into account by the method.The authors propose a combined prediction strategy that explores the physicochemical effects of each amino-acid change and exploits all the information available in sequence and structure databases. They take into account whether the replacement lies in an annotated active or binding site; whether it affects the interaction with ligands; if it leads to a change in hydrophobicity or electrostatic charge in a buried site; destroys a disulfide bond; inserts a proline in an α-helix; or is incompatible with the profile of the substitutions observed in a set of aligned homologous proteins.
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