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Computed Tomography Using a Low Tube Voltage Technique for Acute Ischemic Stroke  [PDF]
Kenji Nakamura, Katsuhiko Maeda, Masao Tanooka, Shuhei Aoyama, Reiichi Ishikura, Noriko Kotoura
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/act.2019.82003
Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to assess for cerebral hemorrhage and acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the accuracy of CT using a low tube voltage technique in acute ischemic stroke. We compared the standard deviation (SD), contrast between gray and white matter, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between three groups (120 kV 500 mAs, 100 kV 850 mAs, and 100 kV 750 mAs using hybrid iterative reconstruction) in 50 patients without lesions, and visual evaluation using the normalized rank approach was also performed. The mean value of SD was 4.02, 4.22, and 4.04, respectively, and the contrast between gray and white matter was 7.08, 8.66, and 8.68 HU, respectively; in addition, the CNR was 1.77, 2.06, and 2.15, respectively. The difference between the 100 kV and 120 kV groups was significant (p < 0.01). Visual evaluation showed a significant difference between the 100 and 120 kV groups (p < 0.05).
Effect of Personality on the Number of Feedback Requests When Learning a Golf-Putting Task  [PDF]
Tadao Ishikura
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2016.64039
Abstract: This study examined how personality influences the number of feedback requests and anxiety when learning to putt in golf. Twenty university students (10 males and 10 female) stood in front of a partition and putted a golf ball, with the goal of having the ball stop on a line 3.5 m from the starting position, along a path that included uphill and downhill portions. I used the Japanese version of the Big Five Personality Inventory (Big Five) to evaluate participants’ personalities and the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form (STAI-JYZ) to evaluate participants’ anxiety. After a pretest, participants completed 60 practice trials in which they were allowed to ask how far the ball went if and when they wanted to. All participants then performed a posttest. Results showed that constant error, variable error, and total variability were lower at posttest than pretest. In addition, the results of a multiple regression analysis showed that higher Big Five agreeableness scale and STAI-JYZ anxiety-present scale scores were associated with fewer requests for feedback. These results suggest that the number of feedback requests was related to consideration and awareness, and these findings have implications for future research on cooperation.
Effects of Pleasant or Unpleasant Feedback Messages on the Learning of Timing  [PDF]
Tadao Ishikura
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.71001
Abstract: We investigated the effects of pleasurable and unpleasurable messages on the learning of timing using a ten-key pressing task. The messages affected the participants’ emotions and provided them with knowledge of the results (KR). A total of 42 university students participated in this experiment. They were divided into three groups: the pleasurable message group (PMG), the unpleasurable message group (UMG), and the control group (CG). Participants were required to 1) press “2”, “4”, “8”, and “6” in order on the ten-key pad, 2) finish within 1100 ms of pressing “2”, and 3) press with relative time intervals of 22.2%, 44.4%, and 33.3%. All groups were provided with the following KR after every practice trial: total time and relative time intervals. Participants in the PMG and UMG groups were provided with pleasurable or unpleasurable messages, respectively, if their total times were within ±5% of the range, or when any of their time intervals fell outside of ±10% of the range. Three pretest trials, 30 practice trials, and three posttest trials were performed on Day 1. Three retention trials and 3 transfer trials were performed on Day 2. The transfer trials total time was 1800 ms, and that of the relative time interval was the same as on Day 1. The results indicate that although all groups learned the timing task, the UMG had higher variable and root mean square errors on the transfer test compared to the PMG and CG. These results suggest that unpleasurable messages are disadvantageous for learning stable timing during the ten-key pressing task because unpleasurable emotions may negatively affect cognitive processing.
Biomechanical analysis of weight bearing force and muscle activation levels in the lower extremities during gait with a walker.
Ishikura T
Acta Medica Okayama , 2001,
Abstract: The biomechanics of using a walker for the partial weight bearing gait and as a method for gradually increasing the muscle activation level were examined with a force plate and surface electromyography. The results showed that the weight bearing force during gait with a walker is determined by the flexion angle of the hip joint. The value remains constant for each stride, indicating that a walker can be used for the partial weight bearing gait. Moreover, the muscle activation levels in the rectus femoris muscle and biceps femoris muscle per unit time during normal gait and gait with a walker with varying hip joint flexion angles were found to be correlated with the weight bearing force and to be constant for each stride. In addition, the muscle activation level was consistent with the level observed during the open kinetic chain resistance exercise with a specific loading level. These findings suggest that normal gait and gait with a walker may be applicable as a method for gradually increasing the muscle activation level.
Molecular Orientation Effect of Heat-Sealed PP Film on Peel Strength and Structure  [PDF]
Kazushi Yamada, Ken Miyata, Reiichi Konishi, Kiyomi Okada, Tetsuya Tsujii
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.511044
Abstract: Heat sealing properties are optimized by controlling temperature, pressure and dwell time, while film strength depends on the drawn ratio and the molecular orientation of the film. However, heat seal strength of polymer films with high drawn ratio shows lower peel strength, because the adhesion of films needs a higher heat sealing energy for molecular orientation relaxation at heat sealing. In the present study, polypropylene films with a drawn ratio of 1.0×, 1.5×, and 2.5× are heat sealed by using the heat sealing technique. The heat sealing condition is set to heat sealing time 1.0 s, sealing pressure 0.2 MPa, and heat sealing temperature 145°C. The effect of drawn ratio and stabilization temperature of PP films for peel strength are investigated using T-Peel test, DSC, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. As a result, it is found that the peel strength is decreased with increasing the drawn ratio and stabilization temperature of PP films. The difference of ?H and melting point from the result of DSC measurement are exhibited for 1.5× drawn ratio film as compared with 2.5× one. In addition, FT-IR imaging and Raman line mapping reveal the influence and variation of high order structure for heat sealed parts of the drawn PP films.
Effects of Darbepoetin-α on Oxidative Stress Marker in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure  [PDF]
Norio Nakamura, Michiko Shimada, Ikuyo Narita, Yuko Shimaya, Takeshi Fujita, Reiichi Murakami, Hiroshi Osawa, Hideaki Yamabe, Ken Okumura
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.41002

Objective: Long-acting darbepoetin (DA) has recently been used to treat renal anemia in patients with chronic renal failure. It is considered clinically useful because its duration of action is longer than that of conventional epoetin. In this study, we investigated changes in the levels of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), renal anemia, and renal function when patients were treated for chronic renal failure switched from epoetin to DA. Materials and Methods: The subjects included nine patients with chronic renal failure and renal anemia who were treated with epoetin on an outpatient basis at our department. Blood was sampled prior to the switch and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the switch. We then investigated changes in MDA-LDL, hemoglobin (Hb), and creatinine (Cr) levels.

The relationship between ambulation ability before surgery and the D-dimer value after total hip arthroplasty: the evaluation of ambulation ability by the timed "Up & Go" test.
Acta Medica Okayama , 2005,
Abstract: We examined whether ambulatory ability before surgery might influence the post-operative D-dimer level after total hip arthroplasty (THA). One hundred two patients with hip osteoarthritis receiving THA were included in the current study. The patients were all female, and their ages ranged from 45 to 81 (average 65.0 +- 9.3 years). Age, operated side, body mass index (BMI), disease duration before surgery, pre-operative pain evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), total cholesterol value, maximal circumference of the lower leg of the operated side, and timed "Up & Go"test (TUG) before surgery, were retrospectively investigated to examine their relationship with D-dimer levels on post-operative day 7. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the D-dimer value: over 10 microg/ml (Group D), and under (Group N). Patients in group D (N= 52)were older, had a higher BMI, and had less ambulatory ability than patients in group N (N= 50). As age showed a relationship with the D-dimer value on the 7th day and TUG results, patients in the 2 groups were further subdivided into 50's, 60's, and 70's age brackets. In the 50's bracket, patients in group D had higher BMI than patients in group N, but time for TUG was not significantly different. In the 60's and 70's bracket, patients in group D had less ambulatory ability than patients in group N, but the time for TUG was not directly correlated with the D-dimer value. The results suggest that pre-operative low ambulatory ability in patients with osteoarthritis over 60 years might influence the postoperative D-dimer after THA, indicating the potential risk for post-operative deep venous thrombosis.
Keisuke Ishikura,Teruo Miyazaki,Song-Gyu Ra,Shoji Endo
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD) gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%), serine (-15~-16%), and glycine (-6~-16%) were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05), but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p <0.05). In contrast, the three amino acids (threonine and serine; p < 0.05, glycine; p < 0.01) and alanine (p < 0.01) in the liver were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, following the exhaustive exercise. In conclusion, the taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine
Immunological profile in a family with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a novel 11 kb deletion in AVPR2 and ARHGAP4 genes
Masaya Fujimoto, Kohsuke Imai, Kenji Hirata, Reiichi Kashiwagi, Yoichi Morinishi, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Sei Sasaki, Tadao Arinami, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Emiko Noguchi
BMC Medical Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-9-42
Abstract: ARHGAP4 is expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells, and it has been reported that an NDI patient lacking AVPR2 and all of ARHGAP4 showed immunodeficiency characterised by a marked reduction in the number of circulating CD3+ cells and almost complete absence of CD8+ cells.PCR and sequencing were performed to identify the deleted region in the Japanese NDI patients. Immunological profiles of the NDI patients were analysed by flow cytometry. We also investigated the gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from NDI patients and healthy controls in microarray technique.We evaluated subjects (one child and two adults) with 11.2-kb deletion that includes the entire AVPR2 locus and approximately half of the ARHGAP4. Hematologic tests showed a reduction of CD4+ cells in one adult patient, a reduction in CD8+ cells in the paediatric patient, and a slight reduction in the serum IgG levels in the adult patients, but none of them showed susceptibility to infection. Gene expression profiling of PBMC lacking ARHGAP4 revealed that expression of RhoGAP family genes was not influenced greatly by the lack of ARHGAP4.These results suggest that loss of ARHGAP4 expression is not compensated for by other family members. ARHGAP4 may play some role in lymphocyte differentiation but partial loss of ARHGAP4 does not result in clinical immunodeficiency.Maintenance of body fluid volume and composition is essential for proper physiologic function in humans. Under normal conditions, the glomerular filtration rate of the two kidneys is 180 L day-1, and up to 90% of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and descending limb of Henle's loop. The key hormone that regulates reabsorption is the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is secreted by the posterior pituitary in response to hypovolemia or hypernatremia [1]. AVP is transported by the blood to the kidney and binds to arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2), leading to an increas
Assessment of the usefulness of presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) in septic patients
T Nishida, H Ishikura, A Murai, Y Irie, T Umemura, T Kamitani, S Endo
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10388
Abstract: A single-center, prospective, observational study. Patients who had one or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were included in this study. The blood samples for measuring the biomarkers were collected and the severity of sepsis was evaluated at the time of admission and every other day for a week. Forty-two patients were enrolled for the prospective study from June 2010 to December 2010.Twenty-three patients were diagnosed with sepsis and 19 patients were without sepsis. In the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish sepsis was the largest for presepsin (0.930) followed by IL-6 (0.896), PCT (0.854) and CRP (0.840). Presepsin may be able to discriminate between patient groups with or without sepsis. From the ROC curve analysis, a cut-off value of presepsin was 929 pg/ml with sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 81%, respectively, with odds ratios and 95% CIs of 0.996 (0.992 to 0.998) and 3.376 (1.497 to 6.094). And the presepsin values were significantly higher in the patients with the more severe septic condition (for example, sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock). In addition, a significant correlation was found between the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment scores and the presepsin values (r2 = 0.320; P = 0.0003). But there was a no significant correlation between APACHE II scores and the presepsin values.In this study, presepsin is the most valuable predictor about sepsis compared with PCT, IL-6 and CRP. Moreover, the results suggest that presepsin values can serve as a parameter that closely reflects the pathology. So we strongly suggest that the presepsin will be not only a very useful new biomarker of the diagnosis of sepsis, but also useful for monitoring the severity of the disease in the near future.
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