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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2906 matches for " Rebecca Emeny "
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Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study
Ralf Strobl, Martin Müller, Rebecca Emeny, Annette Peters, Eva Grill
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-137
Abstract: The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability.Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence.We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups.In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions.
Prospective association between self-reported life satisfaction and mortality: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg S3 survey cohort study
Maria E Lacruz, Rebecca T Emeny, Jens Baumert, Karl H Ladwig
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-579
Abstract: Data collection was conducted on 2,675 participants, age 25-74 years, as part of the MONICA Augsburg Project 1994-95. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with high LS (measured with one item, 6-level Likert scale, where "high" = very satisfied/most of the time very satisfied with ones personal life). After 12 years mean follow-up, a total of 245 deaths occurred. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted incident mortality rates per 10,000. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models.Independent determinants of LS were income, health-perception, and social support, as well as somatisation, anger or depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05). Participants with higher LS (n = 721, 27%) benefited the most with respect to absolute mortality risk reduction (higher LS = 67; mid = 98; low = 140 per 10,000). The sex-stratified analyses indicated an independent association of higher LS and survival for men (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37 - 0.81) but not for women.Baseline assessment demonstrated that psychological, social and life-style factors, but not somatic co-morbidities, were relevant determinants of LS. Moreover, the analysis showed that men with higher LS have a substantial long-term survival benefit. The observed association between LS and mortality may be attributed to common underlying causes such as social network integration and/or self-rated health.Much research has been done on the prospective associations between negative affective states, physical health, and total mortality [1-3]. In contrast, there has been little research linking well-being with physical health, although limited evidence points to the association of well-being with greater health and longevity [4-6]. It is generally accepted that there are three independent facets of positive well-being: positive affect, negative affect and life satisfaction (LS) [7]. LS measures vary in their composition, but generally, they identify trait levels of posi
Mental health in the aged: prevalence, covariates and related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and inflammatory factors of successful aging
Maria E Lacruz, Rebecca T Emeny, Horst Bickel, Barbara Cramer, Alexander Kurz, Martin Bidlingmaier, Dorothea Huber, Günther Klug, Annette Peters, Karl H Ladwig
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-36
Abstract: Components of successful aging were assessed in a telephone survey of 4,127 participants (2008-2009) enrolled in the MONICA/KORA cohort, on average, 13 years earlier. Psychosocial, somatic and behavioural predictors are used to determine factors that contribute to successful aging. An age-stratified random sub-sample (n = 1,079) participated in a personal interview where further psychological mechanisms that may underlie successful adaptation (resilience, social support, attachment) were examined. The interactions among neuroendocrine systems in the aging process are investigated by studying the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ratio, the level of insulin-like growth factor I, and oxytocin.Longitudinal determinants of successful aging can be assessed based on a follow-up of an average of 13 years. A comprehensive analysis of biological as well as physio-psychological information provides a unique opportunity to investigate relevant outcomes such as resilience and frailty in the elderly population.The elderly constitute the fastest growing segment in the population. Increasing age is often associated with worsening physical and mental health, decreasing functional ability and cognitive impairment [1]. Moreover, many older individuals face social isolation due to physical constrains. Nevertheless, an undefined portion of the older population achieves "successful aging" and thereby maintains a sufficient level of subjective well-being. These persons continue to have future plans, a desire to accomplish new goals, and they exhibit a sense of happiness and joy [2]. At least for these individuals, "...old age is not foremost a negative and problem-ridden phase of life" [3]. However, little is known about the sex-specific prevalence of successfully aged individuals in the general population [4], or whether this characterization is stable over time. Furthermore bio-psychological mechanisms of decline in the elderly are uncertain.There is no unanimous definition of "s
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Not Depression Is Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length: Findings from 3,000 Participants in the Population-Based KORA F4 Study
Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Anne Catharina Brockhaus, Jens Baumert, Karoline Lukaschek, Rebecca T. Emeny, Johannes Kruse, Veryan Codd, Sibylle H?fner, Eva Albrecht, Thomas Illig, Nilesh J. Samani, H. Erich Wichmann, Christian Gieger, Annette Peters
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064762
Abstract: Background A link between severe mental stress and shorter telomere length (TL) has been suggested. We analysed the impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on TL in the general population and postulated a dose-dependent TL association in subjects suffering from partial PTSD compared to full PTSD. Methods Data are derived from the population-based KORA F4 study (2006–2008), located in southern Germany including 3,000 individuals (1,449 men and 1,551 women) with valid and complete TL data. Leukocyte TL was measured using a quantitative PCR-based technique. PTSD was assessed in a structured interview and by applying the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). A total of 262 (8.7%) subjects qualified for having partial PTSD and 51 (1.7%) for full PTSD. To assess the association of PTSD with the average TL, linear regression analyses with adjustments for potential confounding factors were performed. Results The multiple model revealed a significant association between partial PTSD and TL (beta = ?0.051, p = 0.009) as well as between full PTSD and shorter TL (beta = ?0.103, p = 0.014) indicating shorter TL on average for partial and full PTSD. An additional adjustment for depression and depressed mood/exhaustion gave comparable beta estimations. Conclusions Participants with partial and full PTSD had significantly shorter leukocyte TL than participants without PTSD. The dose-dependent variation in TL of subjects with partial and full PTSD exceeded the chronological age effect, and was equivalent to an estimated 5 years in partial and 10 years in full PTSD of premature aging.
Pricing Currency Call Options  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811148
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model to price foreign currency call options. Currency options are employed in international trade to reduce the risk of loss due to the reduction of revenues obtained in depreciating foreign currency for an exporter, or the escalation of expense from appreciating foreign currency for an importer. Other users include banks and hedge funds who engage in currency speculation. Given the fluctuation of option prices over time, the model describes the distribution of foreign currency as a Weiner process for macroeconomically constrained foreign currencies followed by a Laplace distribution for unconstrained currencies. In a departure from existing currency option models, this model expresses foreign currencies as dependent upon the change in macroeconomic variables, such as inflation, interest rates, and government deficits. The distribution of currency calls is described as a Levy process in the context of an option trader’s risk preferences to account for the multiple discontinuities of a jump process. The paper concludes with three models of price functions of the Weiner process for Euro-related currency options, a Weiner process for stable currency options, and a Levy-Khintchine process for volatile currency calls.
The Valuation of Currency Put Options  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811165
Abstract: Investors who seek to profit from depreciating currencies may invest in put options. Upon option exercise, the currency is sold at a high price, and then purchased at the lower future currency value, resulting in a gain for the put buyer. A series of such transactions yields a stream of income for the put investor. Alternatively, the investor could short sell the currency, reaping gains from the difference between the high short sale price and the low future purchase price. This paper derives the theoretical formulations for combined short sale and puts purchase strategies for the US dollar, the Euro, the Australian dollar and the New Zealand dollar, and the Mexican peso. Utility functions are based upon an assumption of declining risk aversio with negative rescale factors and positive threshold factors in a hyperbolic cosine distribution. This distribution intersects with the cosine distribution of short sale prices on the U. S. dollar, the lognormal distribution of short sale prices on the Euro, the Weiner process for shorts on the Australian dollar and the New Zealand dollar, and the Laplace currency distribution for peso shorts. Similar utility functions intersect with Levy-Khintchine jump processes to provide put option prices for each type of foreign currency.
Hedge Fund Investing or Mutual Fund Investing: An Application of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory  [PDF]
Rebecca Abraham
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94042
Abstract: This paper contrasts high-risk, hedge fund trading, with low-risk, mutual fund trading, in terms of their differing utility functions. We envision hedge funds, led by informed traders who use information to seek out investment opportunities, timing market conditions, with the expectation that prices will move in their favor. Directional hedge funds act to influence prices, while non-directional hedge funds do not act to influence prices. We present utility functions based on steeply-sloping Laplace distributions and hyperbolic cosine distributions, to describe the actions of directional hedge fund traders. Less steeply-sloping lognormal distributions, Coulomb wave functions, quadratic utility functions, and Bessel utility functions are used to describe the investing style of non-directional hedge fund traders. Flatter Legendre utility functions and inverse sine utility functions describe the modest profit-making aspirations of mutual fund traders. The paper’s chief contribution is to develop optimal prices quantitatively, by intersecting utility functions with price distributions. Price distributions for directional hedge fund returns are portrayed as sharp increases and decreases, in the form of jumps, in a discrete arrival Poisson-distributed process. Separate equations are developed for directional hedge fund strategies, including event-driven arbitrage, and global macro strategies. Non-directional strategies include commodity trading, risk-neutral arbitrage, and convertible arbitrage, with primarily lognormal pricing distributions, and some Poisson jumps. Mutual funds are perceived to be Markowitz portfolios, lying on the Capital Market Line, or the International Capital Market Line, tangent to the Efficient Frontier of minimum variance-maximum return portfolios.
The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort  [PDF]
Gillian Griffiths, Rebecca Billard
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34035

Physical Education is often viewed as the place where Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) are developed. These skills underpin the development of motor competence and perceived competence, therefore impacting on participation and physical literacy. Within education, Gifted and Talented (G & T) and inclusion agendas have been high profile yet research has shown that children across the world are not reaching expected levels of skill mastery at primary level (5 - 11 years). The aim of the research was therefore to investigate the levels of mastery at secondary level (11 - 16 years) and within a G & T cohort to establish their levels of mastery, and investigate how this may relate to their participation in physical activities. Forty five children, 19 years 9 pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) and 26 G & T pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) were evaluated performing a combination locomotor, manipulative (object control) and balance skills (n = 5). 5 trials of each skill were recorded and graded against the performance criteria by one experimenter. Mastery or near mastery were only achieved, if, in 4 out of the 5 trials, 5 of the 6 component criteria were present. If this was not attained non-mastery was designated. Results revealed that the G & T pupils had greater overall mastery of the 5 skills, however they did not master all skills. All G & T had significantly increased jumping and throwing skills, and males significantly increased kicking skills. In both groups the majority of participation outside the school curriculum was related to games activities and was dominated by invasion games however no males participated in “aesthetic” activity outside school. These results indicate that development of FMS may not be occurring in children at KS3 and there is both an invasion games bias and a gender bias in the activities accessed out of school.

Folk-Linguistic Attitudes in Eastern Massachusetts  [PDF]
Rebecca Day Babcock
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.43035

Folk linguistics attempts to study people’s beliefs and attitudes about language through their metalinguistic statements, usually collected in a naturalistic setting. Data was collected in a semistructured focus group setting with 11 white, middle- and working-class participants from Eastern Massachusetts. Participants spoke freely about linguistic topics. The results showed that the group focused their discussion on the speech of politicians (former Boston Mayor Tom Menino to be exact), linguistic status markers, specific features (r- and g-dropping, broad /a/), regions (local Massachusetts regions and Tennessee), and ethnicity (Black and Hispanic). All topics were introduced by the participants, rather than by the researcher.

Privacy of Wearable Electronics in the Healthcare and Childcare Sectors: A Survey of Personal Perspectives from Finland and the United Kingdom  [PDF]
Johanna Virkki, Rebecca Aggarwal
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2014.52005

The innovative development of Wearable Electronics (WE) is creating exciting opportunities for application across many industries. Two sectors with high potential are healthcare and childcare. However, it is in these two sectors where the challenges of privacy are presumed to be of the highest. In order to ascertain the personal views of people about potential privacy problems in WE application in these two sectors, interviews with questionnaires were conducted in two different countries: Finland and the United Kingdom (UK). The results indicated that the majority of people in both countries are positive about the use of WE in healthcare and childcare environments. However, when more information is added to be read wirelessly, the attitudes become more negative. In general, the application of WE is more favorable in the UK and the reason as to the difference will make for interesting further research. Several interesting viewpoints and concerns were presented in the interviews. It can be concluded that the implementation of WE in these two sectors will require the collaboration of work on several areas and the development of versatile user studies.

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