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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2828 matches for " Raymond Ndip Nkongho "
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Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Limitation in detecting African cassava mosaic geminivirus in the lignified tissues of cassava stems
TE Njock, RN Ndip
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Field-infected cassava stems whose leaves were identified with differential symptoms of African cassava mosaic geminivirus (ACMV) disease were assessed for index of severity of symptoms (ISS) to determine their infection status by scoring young resultant plants in the laboratory. Extracts of young stem tissues and leaves of emergent shoots from topped stems were also assayed for occurrence of ACMV by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Geminivirus disease incidence and severity of symptoms were most abundant on leaves of plants from cuttings of field-symptomatic (I) stems of the moderately-resistant TMS 4(2)1425 (63.2%) and the susceptible TMS 60506 (51.1%) genotypes while those from apparently symptom-free (H) stems of the resistant genotype TMS 30001 recorded significantly the least disease (0%). Similarly, the index of severity of symptoms on all plants (ISSAP) and diseased plants only (ISSDP) were significantly highest on leaves of TMS 4(2)1425 (2.42 and 2.83), and were significantly the least (1) on leaves of TMS 30001, respectively. ACMV was not detected in extracts of all sections of lignified cassava stems by ELISA as all absorbance values were below threshold (0.0890). However, the virus was detected at greater concentrations in leaves of emergent axillary shoots regenerating on topped plants of all node types of TMS 60506 and TMS 4(2)1425 as well as the base (node 1) of TMS 30001 stems but not on those from middle and uppermost nodes (10 and 20, respectively) of the latter genotype. The highest absorbance values were recorded on shoots on node 1 of TMS 60506 (0.1720 ± 0.096), TMS 4(2)1425 (0.1640 ± 0.115) and TMS 30001 (0.1580 ± 0.080) in that order, while the least values were on nodes 10 (0.0298 ± 0.020) and 20 (0.0289 ± 0.019) of TMS 30001.
DNA Sequence Analysis of South African Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Gene (vacA)
Nicoline F. Tanih,Lucy M. Ndip,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12117459
Abstract: Sequence diversity and population structures can vary widely among pathogenic bacteria species. In some species, all isolates are highly similar, whereas in others most of the isolates are distinguished easily. H. pylori is known for its wide genetic diversity amongst the various strains most especially in the genes involved in virulence. The aim of this study was to evaluate by PCR and sequence analysis, the genetic profile of H. pylori vacA gene (s1, s2, m1 and m2). We sequenced small DNA segments from 13 vacAs1, 10 vacAm2, 6 vacAm1 and 6 vacAs2 strains which were amplified with amplicon size of 259/286 bp, 290 bp and 352 bp for vacAs1/s2, m1 and m2 respectively. Based on similarities among our strains accession numbers were provided for seven vacAs1 (HQ709109–HQ709115), six vacAs2 (JN848463–JN848468), six vacAm1 (JN848469–JN848474) and six vacAm2 (HQ650801–HQ650806) strains. Amongst the strains studied, 98.07%, 98.58%, 97.38% and 95.41% of vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1 and vacAm2 of the strains were conserved respectively. Findings of this study underscores the importance of understanding the virulence composition and diversity of H. pylori in South Africa for enhanced clinico-epidemiological monitoring and pathophysiology of disease.
A Characterization of the Optimal Management of Heterogeneous Environmental Assets under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Frank Raymond
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25093
Abstract: The application herein involves the optimal management of renewable and nonrenewable resources within the context of a stochastic model of optimal control. By characterizing the two dimensional Bellman solution, three rules with respect to resource management are established. Within the context of coastal development, this analysis may help to explain why renewable resources may become increasingly vulnerable to random external shocks as nonrenewable resources are depleted. Although existence of an optimal closed form solution to the multi-sector Bellman model remains an open mathematical question, this analysis offers a characterization which can be applied to other scenarios in economics or finance in which two assets following stochastic processes interact.
Influence of Hot Spring Phages on Community Carbon Metabolism: Win, Lose or Draw?  [PDF]
Raymond Kepner
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.59066
Abstract: Abundant virus-like particles were concentrated from large-volume samples from two hot springs. Both addition of viral concentrates and addition of samples induced by addition of mitomycin-C changed patterns of carbon source utilization by hot spring microbial communities. Specific effects of the two treatments depended upon both temperature and incubation period. Increased metabolic capability with greater exposure to free phages, consistent with the view that phages are major lateral transporters of metabolic genes, was observed most clearly in microbes incubated at a temperature lower than that encountered in situ. On the other hand, decreases in the diversity of utilizable C sources upon exposure to phages may have been due to lytic activity in which susceptible bacterial populations were differentially reduced by infective viruses, consistent with the “killing the winner” hypothesis. Treatment of cultures with MC-treated culture extracts, assumed to increase exposure to excised prophages, resulted in higher average metabolic rates after 18 h, but lower rates after 48 h of incubation. With incubation at in situ temperature, this same treatment led to an initial increase in the number of readily utilized C sources, followed by a decrease in community metabolic diversity relative to controls in samples from both hot springs. Thus, treatments designed to increase the interaction between hot spring microbes and either free or newly-excised phages had observable time- and temperature-dependent effects on community metabolism, demonstrating an important, yet complex, ecological role for phages in hot spring waters.
Dehumanization, Racial Minority and Female Leadership: An Analysis of Global Trends  [PDF]
Simon Raymond
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.68022
Abstract: Purpose: The use of dehumanization, directed toward racial minorities, impresses as a global trend of significance, spanning from broad generalisations with regards to black community members holding a lower status through to Russian politicians terming Barack Obama and Michelle Obama as mammalian apes (or, monkeys). This report analyses the use of dehumanization and the validity of racial degradation. Female leadership is also analysed. Methods: A comparative analysis was performed assessing the achievements of African Americans in comparison with white (including caucasian) society, with a gender comparison to assess for consistency across genders. The categorisation of racial minorities based on the satisfying of criteria for conscious being recognition was also considered. Results: African Americans have held positions, and achieved success, equally respectable with that of the white (including caucasian) community. These members of society also satisfy the criteria for conscious beings. There appears to be no validity to support black or Asian people as representative of a being less than that of a human being. Conclusion: There appears to be no validity behind categorisation of certain races as lesser members of society. Furthermore, there appears no validity behind the use of dehumanization.
Causes of Death in Patients with Aortic Aneurysmal Disease (1987-2014)  [PDF]
Raymond Englund
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.81001
Abstract: Introduction: This study examined the cause of death of patients with aortic aneurysms treated for this disease between 1987 and 2014 to understand the current natural history of this condition. Methods: This study results from analysis of a prospectively maintained data base of patients treated by the author. Data points were obtained from practice records and supplemented by data made available through CHeRL (Centre for electronic Health Record Linkage). Six hundred and twenty two patients were treated consecutively between 1987 and 2014. At closure of the study in 2014, 402 patients had died and date of death was available. Cause of death was available by ICD (International Classification of Diseases) 9 or 10 in 89% of patients. Method of treatment of aneurysmal disease was available in all patients. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the Centre for Health Research, Cancer Institute, New South Wales Department of Health. Statistical analysis was conducted by comparison of mean ±95% conference interval. Where appropriate contingency table analysis was constructed. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Mean age at presentation was 75.6 years (95%C.I. 74.8 - 76.3). Mean age at death was 81 years (95%C.I. 80.2 - 81.7). Predicted age at death based on Australian Bureau of Statistics life tables was 86.25 years (95%C.I. 85.8 - 86.8). Between 1987 and 1999, mean age at presentation was 74.5 years (95%C.I. 73.3 - 75, n = 304, Females = 78). Between 2000 and 2014, mean age at presentation was 75.3 years (95%C.I. 74.1 - 75, n = 318, females = 54). The difference for females presenting 1987 to 1999 compared 2000 to 2014 was significant, p < 0.01. Death was due to the following causes unknown 11%, cardiovascular disease 27.7%, pulmonary related disease 9.7% and aortic related disease 20.6%. Patients died of aortic related causes significantly earlier (within 2 years) compared to patients with other causes of death (5 to 8 years) due to presentation with ruptured aortic aneurysm. Cardiovascular related causes of death, malignancy and pulmonary related causes of death accounted for the majority of deaths post-treatment. There was no significant difference in length of survival among patients dying from these causes. Conclusion: Patients with successfully treated aneurysmal disease can expect to survive 5 - 8 years post-treatment. Presentation with aortic aneurysm rupture results in significantly shortened life expectancy. Patients presenting in the ninth
Towards a Classification of Left Common Iliac Vein Compression Based on Triplanar Phlebography  [PDF]
Raymond Englund
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.81003
Abstract: Introduction: There is currently no consistent classification of the extent of left common iliac vein compression syndromes such that clinicians working in the area have a common terminology. Hypothesis: To create a classification of left common iliac vein compression based on the end point of triplanar pelvic phlebogrpahy. Methods: Based on 61 consecutive patients found to have left common iliac vein compression on triplanar phlebography in the course of treatment of venous disease, clinical presentation and symptomatology were retrospectively used to create a classification of left common iliac vein compression. Treatment of left common iliac vein compression was also retrospectively correlated with staging. Results: The following classification was arrived at: Stage 0, no compression and no intraluminal fibrous bands; Stage 1, evidence of compression by surrounding anatomical structures with or without the presence of fibrous bands; Stage 2: evidence of compression with or without fibrous bands as evidenced by cross-pelvic collaterals; Stage 3: compression of the left common iliac vein. Fibrous bands replaced by localised occlusion, with collateralisation and no involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4a: as for Stage 3 but with the addition of thrombotic involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4b: as for Stage 4a but with involvement of distal venous segments, femoral and popliteal. Stages 3, 4a or 4b correlated well with clinical presentations of DVT, PE, venous ulceration, vulval or cross-pelvic collaterals, ipsilateral limb swelling and claudication. The presence of varicose veins or recurrent varicose veins was a common finding amongst all groups. Conclusion: Acceptance of this classification system would provide a common terminology to allow more transparent assessment of modalities of treatment for this condition.
Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
Nicoline F. Tanih,Roland N. Ndip
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/834156
Abstract: We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery.
Molecular Detection and Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Cattle at a Dairy Farm in the Nkonkobe Region of South Africa: A Pilot Study
Blessing Silaigwana,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9062045
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred samples (100 mL each) were obtained from a dairy farm in the Nkonkobe region of South Africa. The samples were processed using the modified Petroff method. DNA was isolated using a Zymo Bacterial DNA kit and amplified using Seeplex ? MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype ? Mycobacterium tuberculosis-multidrug resistant plus (MTBDR plus) assay was used to perform drug susceptibility and detection of mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). Eleven samples tested positive for MTBC DNA using the Seeplex ? MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype ? MTBDR plus assay showed that 10/11 samples were resistant to both INH and RIF i.e., multi-drug resistant (MDR). The most and least frequent rpoB mutations detected in RIF resistant samples were H526Y (9/10) and D516V (2/10) respectively. None of the INH resistant samples harbored mutations in the katG gene. However, all of them harbored the T8A mutation in the inhA gene. These results have clinical and epidemiological significance and calls for further studies and necessary actions to delineate the situation.
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