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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2803 matches for " Raymond Moncoulon "
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A Bioenergetic-Redox Approach to the Effect of Live Yeast on Ruminal pH during Induced Acidosis in Dairy Cow  [PDF]
Jean Philippe Marden, Corine Bayourthe, Eric Auclair, Raymond Moncoulon
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410A1008
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the live yeast (LY) Saccharomyces cerevisiae in optimizing ruminal pH and in understanding its mode of action during induced acidosis in dairy cow. Two non-lactating cannulated cows were used and offered twice daily a control diet (CD) consisting of 51% corn silage and 49% concentrates or a LY diet (LYD) composed of CD supplemented with 4 g of LY per cow and per day. Measurements of pH and redox potential (Eh) were continuously made at 1 h interval during an experimental period of 9 h per day. Samples of ruminal fluid were also taken at 2 h intervals for analyses of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactic acid. Oxygen partial pressure (logPO2) in the ruminal milieu was calculated from the Nernst equation, using either O2-H2O or lactate-propionate redox couples. The results showed an increase of 0.2 unit in ruminal pH when LYD was fed, which was accompanied by a mean difference in Eh of -20 mV with respect to CD. The logPO2 decreased significantly by 0.8 log unit for LYD when compared to CD. Concentrations of VFA and proportion of propionate were higher with LYD (114.4 mM and 17.1% total VFA) compared to CD (102.4 mM and 15.4% total VFA). Proportion of butyrate
Interaction between Live Yeast and Dietary Rumen Degradable Protein Level: Effects on Diet Utilization in Early-Lactating Dairy Cows  [PDF]
Christine Julien, Jean Philippe Marden, Eric Auclair, Raymond Moncoulon, Laurent Cauquil, Jean Louis Peyraud, Corine Bayourthe
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.61001
Abstract: Four early lactating Holstein cows were used to study the effect of live yeast (LY, Actisaf® CNCM I-4407, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Marcq en Baroeul, France) supplementation on diet digestive utilization of dairy cows receiving concentrated corn silage-based diets with two rumen-degradable protein (RDP) levels. For a 33 d period, cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing an adequate level (AL) of RDP or a low level (LL, 30% below AL) by using soybean meal or tanned soybean meal, respectively: for 21 d with no LY addition followed by 12 d during which LY was added to the diet. The pH and redox potential (Eh) were recorded and ruminal fluid samples were collected over 3 consecutive days. Feces were collected individually over 48 h and individual dry matter intake (DMI) was measured for determining apparent nutrient digestibility. The effective degradability of individual feed ingredients composing both diets was evaluated with nylon bags technique. Structure of the ruminal bacterial community was studied and diversity index was calculated. Digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) were lower for LL than those for AL. With LY, digestibility of OM and CP was increased: +2.4 and +0.8 points, for AL, and +3.7 and +5.9 points for LL, respectively. Live yeast reduced dietary N ruminal degradation with both AL and LL. Ruminal pH and Eh were lower with AL compared to LL: 5.95 and –167 mV vs. 6.13 and –144 mV. Live yeast increased ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (+8.6%), C2 (+10%), and C4 (+35%) contents for LL and decreased that of C3 (?9.8%) for AL. Neither the structure of bacterial populations of the rumen nor the diversity index (Shannon) was altered by treatments. Those results suggested a specific interest in using LY in RDP deficient diets for early lactating cows.
A Characterization of the Optimal Management of Heterogeneous Environmental Assets under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Frank Raymond
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25093
Abstract: The application herein involves the optimal management of renewable and nonrenewable resources within the context of a stochastic model of optimal control. By characterizing the two dimensional Bellman solution, three rules with respect to resource management are established. Within the context of coastal development, this analysis may help to explain why renewable resources may become increasingly vulnerable to random external shocks as nonrenewable resources are depleted. Although existence of an optimal closed form solution to the multi-sector Bellman model remains an open mathematical question, this analysis offers a characterization which can be applied to other scenarios in economics or finance in which two assets following stochastic processes interact.
Influence of Hot Spring Phages on Community Carbon Metabolism: Win, Lose or Draw?  [PDF]
Raymond Kepner
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.59066
Abstract: Abundant virus-like particles were concentrated from large-volume samples from two hot springs. Both addition of viral concentrates and addition of samples induced by addition of mitomycin-C changed patterns of carbon source utilization by hot spring microbial communities. Specific effects of the two treatments depended upon both temperature and incubation period. Increased metabolic capability with greater exposure to free phages, consistent with the view that phages are major lateral transporters of metabolic genes, was observed most clearly in microbes incubated at a temperature lower than that encountered in situ. On the other hand, decreases in the diversity of utilizable C sources upon exposure to phages may have been due to lytic activity in which susceptible bacterial populations were differentially reduced by infective viruses, consistent with the “killing the winner” hypothesis. Treatment of cultures with MC-treated culture extracts, assumed to increase exposure to excised prophages, resulted in higher average metabolic rates after 18 h, but lower rates after 48 h of incubation. With incubation at in situ temperature, this same treatment led to an initial increase in the number of readily utilized C sources, followed by a decrease in community metabolic diversity relative to controls in samples from both hot springs. Thus, treatments designed to increase the interaction between hot spring microbes and either free or newly-excised phages had observable time- and temperature-dependent effects on community metabolism, demonstrating an important, yet complex, ecological role for phages in hot spring waters.
Dehumanization, Racial Minority and Female Leadership: An Analysis of Global Trends  [PDF]
Simon Raymond
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.68022
Abstract: Purpose: The use of dehumanization, directed toward racial minorities, impresses as a global trend of significance, spanning from broad generalisations with regards to black community members holding a lower status through to Russian politicians terming Barack Obama and Michelle Obama as mammalian apes (or, monkeys). This report analyses the use of dehumanization and the validity of racial degradation. Female leadership is also analysed. Methods: A comparative analysis was performed assessing the achievements of African Americans in comparison with white (including caucasian) society, with a gender comparison to assess for consistency across genders. The categorisation of racial minorities based on the satisfying of criteria for conscious being recognition was also considered. Results: African Americans have held positions, and achieved success, equally respectable with that of the white (including caucasian) community. These members of society also satisfy the criteria for conscious beings. There appears to be no validity to support black or Asian people as representative of a being less than that of a human being. Conclusion: There appears to be no validity behind categorisation of certain races as lesser members of society. Furthermore, there appears no validity behind the use of dehumanization.
Causes of Death in Patients with Aortic Aneurysmal Disease (1987-2014)  [PDF]
Raymond Englund
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.81001
Abstract: Introduction: This study examined the cause of death of patients with aortic aneurysms treated for this disease between 1987 and 2014 to understand the current natural history of this condition. Methods: This study results from analysis of a prospectively maintained data base of patients treated by the author. Data points were obtained from practice records and supplemented by data made available through CHeRL (Centre for electronic Health Record Linkage). Six hundred and twenty two patients were treated consecutively between 1987 and 2014. At closure of the study in 2014, 402 patients had died and date of death was available. Cause of death was available by ICD (International Classification of Diseases) 9 or 10 in 89% of patients. Method of treatment of aneurysmal disease was available in all patients. Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the Centre for Health Research, Cancer Institute, New South Wales Department of Health. Statistical analysis was conducted by comparison of mean ±95% conference interval. Where appropriate contingency table analysis was constructed. Statistical significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Mean age at presentation was 75.6 years (95%C.I. 74.8 - 76.3). Mean age at death was 81 years (95%C.I. 80.2 - 81.7). Predicted age at death based on Australian Bureau of Statistics life tables was 86.25 years (95%C.I. 85.8 - 86.8). Between 1987 and 1999, mean age at presentation was 74.5 years (95%C.I. 73.3 - 75, n = 304, Females = 78). Between 2000 and 2014, mean age at presentation was 75.3 years (95%C.I. 74.1 - 75, n = 318, females = 54). The difference for females presenting 1987 to 1999 compared 2000 to 2014 was significant, p < 0.01. Death was due to the following causes unknown 11%, cardiovascular disease 27.7%, pulmonary related disease 9.7% and aortic related disease 20.6%. Patients died of aortic related causes significantly earlier (within 2 years) compared to patients with other causes of death (5 to 8 years) due to presentation with ruptured aortic aneurysm. Cardiovascular related causes of death, malignancy and pulmonary related causes of death accounted for the majority of deaths post-treatment. There was no significant difference in length of survival among patients dying from these causes. Conclusion: Patients with successfully treated aneurysmal disease can expect to survive 5 - 8 years post-treatment. Presentation with aortic aneurysm rupture results in significantly shortened life expectancy. Patients presenting in the ninth
Towards a Classification of Left Common Iliac Vein Compression Based on Triplanar Phlebography  [PDF]
Raymond Englund
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.81003
Abstract: Introduction: There is currently no consistent classification of the extent of left common iliac vein compression syndromes such that clinicians working in the area have a common terminology. Hypothesis: To create a classification of left common iliac vein compression based on the end point of triplanar pelvic phlebogrpahy. Methods: Based on 61 consecutive patients found to have left common iliac vein compression on triplanar phlebography in the course of treatment of venous disease, clinical presentation and symptomatology were retrospectively used to create a classification of left common iliac vein compression. Treatment of left common iliac vein compression was also retrospectively correlated with staging. Results: The following classification was arrived at: Stage 0, no compression and no intraluminal fibrous bands; Stage 1, evidence of compression by surrounding anatomical structures with or without the presence of fibrous bands; Stage 2: evidence of compression with or without fibrous bands as evidenced by cross-pelvic collaterals; Stage 3: compression of the left common iliac vein. Fibrous bands replaced by localised occlusion, with collateralisation and no involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4a: as for Stage 3 but with the addition of thrombotic involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4b: as for Stage 4a but with involvement of distal venous segments, femoral and popliteal. Stages 3, 4a or 4b correlated well with clinical presentations of DVT, PE, venous ulceration, vulval or cross-pelvic collaterals, ipsilateral limb swelling and claudication. The presence of varicose veins or recurrent varicose veins was a common finding amongst all groups. Conclusion: Acceptance of this classification system would provide a common terminology to allow more transparent assessment of modalities of treatment for this condition.
Voluntarily Relinquishing Private Property Rights: The Existence of Risk-Pooling Equilibria When Facing Environmental Uncertainty  [PDF]
Francis E. Raymond, Benjamin W. Raymond
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.52027
Abstract: As weather patterns across the globe change in response to global warming, we should expect more strain on existing institutions. This paper demonstrates how weather risk induces farmers into a risk-pooling equilibrium whereby private property rights are voluntarily relinquished. We find that as the spacial variability of rainfall increases, rising investment and increased subplot dispersion are complementary hedges against weather risk. With subplot dispersion, the cost of preserving private property rights rises, incentivizing farmers to develop a system of common property rights. In contrast, investment and subplot dispersion become substitute hedges as weather risk diminishes. We provide a dynamic theoretical model which complements previous empirical work on the impact of weather risk on property rights.
Information Technology Adoption and Assimilation : Towards a Research Framework for Service Sector SMEs  [PDF]
Sylvestre Uwizeyemungu, Louis Raymond
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.42018
Abstract: Information technologies (IT) have become one of the most important infrastructural elements for SMEs in service in-dustries. Now, these firms show specific characteristics and behaviours with regard to adopting and assimilating IT. These specificities have not been taken into account however in formulating a research framework or programme on the adoption and assimilation of IT in service SMEs. The present study thus seeks to fill this void. After reviewing the literature on IT in the services sector, the antecedents of IT adoption and assimilation in the context of service SMEs are identified and integrated within a research framework. This framework is then applied to generate a set of twenty-two salient propositions for future research on IT adoption and assimilation in service sector SMEs.
Unified Mogramming with Var-Oriented Modeling and Exertion-Oriented Programming Languages  [PDF]
Michael Sobolewski, Raymond Kolonay
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.529068
Abstract: The Service ORiented Computing EnviRonment (SORCER) targets service abstractions for transdisciplinary complexity with support for heterogeneous service-oriented (SO) computing. SORCER's models are expressed in a top-down Var-oriented Modeling Language (VML) unified with programs in a bottoms-up Exertion-Oriented Language (EOL). In this paper the introduction to mogramming (modeling and programing), which uses both languages, is described. First, the emphasis is on modeling with service variables that allow for computational fidelity within VML. Then, seven types of service providers, both local and distributed, are described to form collaborative federations described in EOL. Finally, the unified hybrid of SO modeling and SO programming is presented. Fourteen simple mogramming examples illustrate the syntax and usage of both VML and EOL.
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