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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3625 matches for " Ravi Nath "
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Fighting Uncertainty with Uncertainty: A Baby Step  [PDF]
Ravi Kashyap
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.75097
Abstract: We can overcome uncertainty with uncertainty. Using randomness in our choices and in what we control, and hence in the decision making process, we could potentially offset the uncertainty inherent in the environment and yield better outcomes. The example we develop in greater detail is the news-vendor inventory management problem with demand uncertainty. We briefly discuss areas, where such an approach might be helpful, with the common prescription, “Don’t Simply Optimize, Also Randomize; perhaps best described by the termRandoptimization”. 1) News-Vendor Inventory Management; 2) School Admissions; 3) Journal Submissions; 4) Job Candidate Selection; 5) Stock Picking; 6) Monetary Policy. This methodology is suitable for the social sciences since the primary source of uncertainty is the members of the system themselves and presently, no methods are known to fully determine the outcomes in such an environment, which perhaps would require being able to read the minds of everyone involved and to anticipate their actions continuously. Admittedly, we are not qualified to recommend whether such an approach is conducive for the natural sciences, unless perhaps, bounds can be established on the levels of uncertainty in a system and it is shown conclusively that a better understanding of the system and hence improved decision making will not alter the outcomes.
Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar India: Comparison of the rK39 Rapid Diagnostic Test on Whole Blood Versus Serum
Greg Matlashewski ,Vidya Nand Ravi Das,Krishna Pandey,Dharmendra Singh,Sushmita Das,Ayan Kumar Ghosh,Ravindra Nath Pandey,Pradeep Das
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002233
Abstract: Background Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) against rK39 are available to aid in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although these rK39 RDTs have been developed, validated and approved for use with serum, they are universally performed using whole blood. It was therefore necessary to determine whether this RDT is as sensitive on whole blood as on serum. Method and Principal Findings In this study we compared the rK39 RDT on serum and blood samples from 624 individuals with symptoms of VL attending the outpatient clinic at the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India. A total of 251 cases (40%) were both serum and blood-positive and 26 cases (4%) were identified as blood-negative and serum-positive. These 26 individuals in general had low titer antibodies against rK39 as determined by ELISA and follow-up on most of these individuals revealed none had persistent VL symptoms. The Cohen kappa index comparing blood and serum was 0.88 indicating excellent concordance. Conclusion Although the concordance was excellent, it is possible to miss rK39 positive individuals when using blood and the titer of anti-rK39 antibodies is low. We recommend that when an individual from an endemic area has obvious clinical symptoms of VL and the whole blood rK39 RDT is negative, that the test should be redone 2–3 weeks later if the symptoms persist.
Impact of ASHA Training on Active Case Detection of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India
Vidya Nand Ravi Das,Ravindra Nath Pandey,Krishna Pandey,Varsha Singh,Vijay Kumar,Greg Matlashewski ?,Pradeep Das ?
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002774
Abstract: Background One of the major challenges for management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is early diagnosis of cases to improve treatment outcome and reduce transmission. We have therefore investigated active case detection of VL with the help of accredited social health activists (ASHA). ASHAs are women who live in the community and receive performance-based incentives for overseeing maternal and other health-related issues in their village. Methods and Principal Finding Through conducting interviews with 400 randomly selected ASHAs from four primary health care centers (PHCs), it was observed that their level of knowledge about visceral leishmaniasis (VL) regarding transmission, diagnosis, and treatment was limited. The baseline data indicated that less than 10% of VL cases seeking treatment at the PHCs were referred by ASHAs. To increase the knowledge and the referral rate of VL cases by ASHAs, training sessions were carried out during the monthly ASHA meetings at their respective PHCs. Following a single training session, the referral rate increased from less than 10% to over 27% and the overall knowledge about VL substantially improved. It was not possible, however, to demonstrate that ASHA training reduced the time that individuals had fever before treatment at the PHC. Conclusions Training ASHAs to identify VL cases in villages for early diagnosis and treatment at the local PHC is feasible and should be undertaken routinely to improve knowledge about VL.
Global Climate Change and Emerging Environmental and Strategic Security Issues for South Asia  [PDF]
Amarendra Nath Sarkar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29135
Abstract: Global climate change-essentially an adverse consequence of global warming, is principally caused by progressive build-up and extensive spread of greenhouse gases (GHGs) across countries, regions or continents because of earth’s rotational movement. The potent sources of GHGs are fossil-fuels and biomass. With the increasing pace of globalization, industrialization and rapid change of life-style the demand and consumption of these feed-stocks to stimulate economic growth is steadily rising-both in the developing and developed economy. In the process, the emissions level is also rising phenomenally; and of late become quite alarming-more in the former than latter case, affecting thereby the environmental quality as also its security concerns globally. This paper highlights the major impacts of global warming and consequential climate change on the environmental quality and overall security aspects-including commercial, strategic and defense angles for the South-Asian region. The paper also discusses some relevant aspects linking the larger question of energy security with environmental security through the approach of sustainable energy development for envisioning a balanced economic development as well as growth perspective for South Asia. The significance of International cooperation in the mitigation and adaptation of climate change impacts with special reference to Asia- Pacific and South Asian region is also discussed at some length in the paper.
Effect of Heat Extraction by Metal Lines and Two Sided Cooling on Temperatures in Organic Light Emitting Diode Based Devices  [PDF]
Deepak ., Gokaran Nath Shukla
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control (JECTC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jectc.2011.13004
Abstract: Only a 10 K rise in temperature of organic light emitting diode (OLED) can lower its lifetime by more than 50% and cause other performance deterioration. We have performed two dimensional heat transport analysis and calculated temperatures in an OLED panel. The panel temperatures can easily rise in excess of 10 K. Further we have investigated loss of heat through the metal lines for the extent by which they could lower the temperature. However, this method leads to gradients in temperature which could in turn cause inhomogeneities in a display. But, in lighting panels, it will be feasible to cool the devices from both the sides, which is shown to have a significant impact. The thermal transport model presented here for displays is more extensive in its approach and hence likely to provide more accurate results.
Investigation of Probability Generating Function in an Interdependent M/M/1:(∞; GD) Queueing Model with Controllable Arrival Rates Using Rouche’s Theorem  [PDF]
Vishwa Nath Maurya
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2012.12006
Abstract: Present paper deals a M/M/1:(∞; GD) queueing model with interdependent controllable arrival and service rates where- in customers arrive in the system according to poisson distribution with two different arrivals rates-slower and faster as per controllable arrival policy. Keeping in view the general trend of interdependent arrival and service processes, it is presumed that random variables of arrival and service processes follow a bivariate poisson distribution and the server provides his services under general discipline of service rule in an infinitely large waiting space. In this paper, our central attention is to explore the probability generating functions using Rouche’s theorem in both cases of slower and faster arrival rates of the queueing model taken into consideration; which may be helpful for mathematicians and researchers for establishing significant performance measures of the model. Moreover, for the purpose of high-lighting the application aspect of our investigated result, very recently Maurya [1] has derived successfully the expected busy periods of the server in both cases of slower and faster arrival rates, which have also been presented by the end of this paper.


Study Chromaticity of Solar Spectrum  [PDF]
Nagendra Nath Mondal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.43047
Abstract: The chromaticity of solar spectrum is studied with the help of a Solar Spectrum Monitor system that can detect individual color in the spectrum. Recent observations done by the detector on the Solar Radiation and the Erath Milieu Experiment suggest that the sun’s visible spectral irradiance changes from May 2009 to September 2012. The data of Earth’s coordinates and environment have been taken since April 2005 after the devastating Tsunami (December, 2004) of India. The bizarre data of zenith angle, azimuth angle, and temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere show their changes of maxima and minima epoch to epoch. The data of solar spectrum monitor have been taking since 2009 and significant transformations of colored ratios ΔRB/W and ΔRR/W per hour are observed among the regions of each solstice between 2009 and 2012. The author advocates that the abrupt vagaries of the Earth’s movements may cause devastating tsunamis, earthquake, volcanic eruption, cyclones and tornadoes in addition of anomalous changes of solar spectral irradiation, humidity,
Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home)  [PDF]
Hom Nath Chalise
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.31002

Introduction: Depression is a common public health issue with the increasing life expectancy worldwide and depression is associated with morbidity as well as disability among the elderly. There are very few studies related with depression among elderly from developing countries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and its correlates among the elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using short version of Geriatric Depression Scale. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, simple correlation and regression. Results: The subjects (N = 185) were elderly aged 60 years and above living in Devghat area, Nepal. Mean age of the subjects was 73.67 (±3.23) years old and 51% were male. 94% elderly belong to Khas ethnicity. Nearly one third (31%) elderly were from nuclear family back ground, 25% were married, and only 18% elderly were literate. Majority of the elderly (93%) had health problems and self reported health shows 86% elderly reported their health fair. This study shows mean functional disability score was 2.53 (±2.05). Finding shows the prevalence of depression was 57.8%. Among them 46.7% had mild, 8.9% had moderate and 2.2% had severe depression. A statistically significant correlation was found between feelings of depression and age, sex, previous family type, ethnicity, feeling of loneliness and instrumental activities of daily living. Regression analysis shows that being women, feeling of loneliness and higher the dependency in IADL were predictors of depression. Conclusion: This study indicates that many elderly living in the Briddashram are suffering from depression. There should be some interruption from the concerned authorities so that depression can be reduced which will support to the well-being and quality of life of elderly.

Discovered Solar Positronium  [PDF]
Nagendra Nath Mondal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44057
Abstract: I describe a method for the observation of Positronium (Ps) involvement in the solar radiation spectrum. In this method, Rydberg-Ritz’s principle and Planck’s radiation formula are used to acquire information of the atomic transitions of Ps alike Hydrogen and Helium. In order to perform this experiment, an advanced solar spectrum monitor is constructed by utilizing light emitting diodes (LED) of various colors. A detailed study on this method provides qualitative agreement with experimental data, giving insight to the physical process involved in the solar radiation spectrum and confirming the existence of solar Ps.
Discovery of Light-Light Scattering (A Test of the Primordial Universe)  [PDF]
Nagendra Nath Mondal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.64031
Abstract: Different types of scatterings of photons with atoms, theoretical and experimental evidences of the light-light scattering in the visible range of electromagnetic waves are discussed. An inexpensive detection system of scattered light is developed in order to study this phenomenon without considering the scattering cross sections and photon structure function, and results infer that the universe is covered by the mesh of scattered photons. Asymmetry measurement of light-light scatterings shows that lower frequency photon scattered a lot than higher frequency photons. The homogeneity of mesh in absence of a direct incident light is better than that of presence although mesh intensity goes down and up respectively. The recent measurement of gravitational waves from black holes invokes this phenomenon that the primordial forms of the universe are the mesh of scattered light that intensity is extremely low in the absence of stars in a region where they sink is called a black hole.
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