Abstract:
Purpose: Ablative options, beyond mastectomy, for large breasted patients with
breast cancer include oncoplastic resection via reduction pattern and standard
lumpectomy. Oncoplastic resection also entails a contralateral procedure for
symmetry and the potential benefit of a superior cosmetic outcome. Our aim was
to examine the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy comparing it to
standard lumpectomy in treating breast cancer patients. Methods: A
literature review was performed of the probabilities and outcomes related to
treatment of unilateral breast cancer via oncoplastic resection or unilateral
lumpectomy. Utility score surveys were used to estimate the quality adjusted
life years (QALYs) associated with a successful procedure, additional margins
excision and post-operative complications. A decision analysis tree was
developed to highlight the more cost-effective strategy. An Incremental
Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to
check the robustness of our data. Results: Oncoplastic resection was
associated with fewer positive margins relative to standard lumpectomy (10.0%
versus 18%). In cases with positive margins, a greater percentage of
oncoplastic resection patients chose a mastectomy compared to the lumpectomy
patients (72% versus 19%). Utility scores for a successful operation favored
oncoplastic resection (92.6 versus 86.55), but in instances of positive
margins, favored the lumpectomy patients (74.2 versus 70.2). Decision tree
analysis revealed that oncoplastic resection was more cost-effective with an
ICUR of $2609.66/QALY gained. Conclusion: Oncoplastic resection represents
a cost-effective strategy for the large breasted patient and provides the
surgical team yet another reasonable option for the appropriate patient.

Abstract:
Supersymmetry transformations are a kind of square root of spacetime translations. The corresponding Lie superalgebra always contains the supertranslation operator $ \delta = c^{\alpha} \sigma^{\mu}_{\alpha \dot \beta} {\overline c}^{\dot \beta} (\epsilon^{\mu})^{\dag} $. We find that the cohomology of this operator depends on a spin-orbit coupling in an SU(2) group and has a quite complicated structure. This spin-orbit type coupling will turn out to be basic in the cohomology of supersymmetric field theories in general.

Abstract:
We examine the BRS cohomology of chiral matter in $N=1$, $D=4$ supersymmetry to determine a general form of composite superfield operators which can suffer from supersymmetry anomalies. Composite superfield operators $\Y_{(a,b)}$ are products of the elementary chiral superfields $S$ and $\ov S$ and the derivative operators $D_\a$, $\ov D_{\dot \b}$ and $\pa_{\a \dot \b}$. Such superfields $\Y_{(a,b)}$ can be chosen to have `$a$' symmetrized undotted indices $\a_i$ and `$b$' symmetrized dotted indices $\dot \b_j$. The result derived here is that each composite superfield $\Y_{(a,b)}$ is subject to potential supersymmetry anomalies if $a-b$ is an odd number, which means that $\Y_{(a,b)}$ is a fermionic superfield.

Abstract:
We use the anomaly cancellation of the M-theory fivebrane to derive the R-symmetry anomalies of the $A_{N}$ $(0,2)$ tensor-multiplet theories. This result leads to a simple derivation of black hole entropy in $d=4, \CN=2$ compactifications of $M$-theory. We also show how the formalism of normal bundle anomaly cancellation clarifies the Kaluza-Klein origin of Chern-Simons terms in gauged supergravity theories. The results imply the existence of interesting 1/N corrections in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Abstract:
We characterize N=1 vacua of type II theories in terms of generalized complex structure on the internal manifold M. The structure group of T(M) + T*(M) being SU(3) x SU(3) implies the existence of two pure spinors Phi_1 and Phi_2. The conditions for preserving N=1 supersymmetry turn out to be simple generalizations of equations that have appeared in the context of N=2 and topological strings. They are (d + H wedge) Phi_1=0 and (d + H wedge) Phi_2 = F_RR. The equation for the first pure spinor implies that the internal space is a twisted generalized Calabi-Yau manifold of a hybrid complex-symplectic type, while the RR-fields serve as an integrability defect for the second.

Abstract:
We study gravitational anomalies for fivebranes in M theory. We show that an apparent anomaly in diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle is cancelled by a careful treatment of the M theory Chern-Simons coupling in the presence of fivebranes. One interesting aspect of our treatment is the way in which a magnetic object (the fivebrane) is smoothed out through coupling to gravity and the resulting relation between antisymmetric tensor gauge transformations and diffeomorphisms in the presence of a fivebrane.

Abstract:
Using functional equations, we define functors that generalize standard examples from calculus of one variable. Examples of such functors are discussed and their Taylor towers are computed. We also show that these functors factor through objects enriched over the homology of little $n$-cubes operads and discuss the relationship between functors defined via functional equations and operads. In addition, we compute the differentials of the forgetful functor from the category of $n$-Poisson algebras in terms of the homology of configuration spaces.

Abstract:
Coal during its carbonization process produces a gas. This gas, mainly formed by methane, can be used. The use of CBM (Coal bed methane) as an energetic resource is not much known in Spain. This work is the first step to enhance the development of this resource in Castilla y León. A theoretical review and a state of the art description have been carried out, taking into account all the factors that can influence in the development of a CBM project. Then CBM resources have been quantified by Castilla y León accurately for every coal bed. After that, technical feasibility has been used to evaluate total amount of gas that can be recovered. The last step was to evaluate economic feasibility to know how much gas could be economically profitable. This paper covers the economic factor and exploitation options of CBM in Castilla y León, considering technical parameters together with costs and economic requirements for the tow most promising areas in north-west Spain. The main findings include that a CBM system would be feasible in Guardo-Barruelo, however, the economic feasibility will be limited to long operation time of the wells and an increase of the prices of natural gas. In North Leon, the results show a high profitability even under low natural gas prices.

Abstract:
Power generation industry has tackled waste reuse and valorisation for decades. Nevertheless, new technologies, like Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers operating in oxy-combustion, have an important gap of knowledge in residues characterization and valorisation. This project will tackle this. Furthermore, as a result of the high quantity of waste that these installations generate new business models can be opened. The project aims at characterizing the residues from a large scale oxy-CFB facility with carbon, capture, use and storage (CCUS) focusing on the larger and main residues produced: fly ash, bottom ash, and algae production from captured CO_{2}. An analysis of possible uses and treatment needs, such as additives or preparation for use in agriculture or industry, will be carried out. Best re-utilization and valorisation options will be stated for fly ash, bottom ash and algae, aiming for a novel combination of CO_{2} capture technologies with recovery of valuable materials from different wastes, addressing different and sustainable solutions for their reuse, enhancing the feasibility of CCUS, and combining research with the creation of new business models towards a green economy more attractive to the public perception.

Abstract:
We discuss the relation between the Ramond-Ramond charges of D-branes and the topology of Chan-Paton vector bundles. We show that a topologically nontrivial normal bundle induces RR charge and that the result fits in perfectly with the proposal that D-brane charge is the topology of the Chan-Paton bundle, regarded as an element of K-theory.