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Rape and Medical Consequences among Girls and Women Victims during the Post-Armed Conflict Context in Congo  [PDF]
Ndziessi Gilbert, Bintsene-Mpika Gickelle, Aloumba Julius Axel, Bileckot Richard
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.91007
Abstract: Rape is a criminal, aggressive and violent act to have sexual intercourse with a person without her consent. Few studies have been conducted on rape and sexual assaults related to armed conflict in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of rape and its medical consequences among victims during armed post-conflict period in Brazzaville from January to December 1999. Rape victim was defined as woman or girl having received medical care from January to December 1999 in care units following reporting having incident of rape. SPSS V 20 software was used for the analyses. A total of 1282 victims were assessed. We documented 106 post-rape pregnancies, of which 58 (54.7%) ended in abortion, 15 (14.2%) in miscarriage and 33 (31.1%) in childbirth. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were common, with 560 (44%) cases among the 1282 victims. Of these, 301 (23%) had trichomoniasis, 123 (10%) had salpingitis, 89 (7%) had vaginal candidiasis and 38 (3%) had gonorrhea. A large proportion of morbidity 362 (28%) was attributed to vulvovaginal injuries and traumatic pelvic pains. In conclusion, our study highlights that rape practice was common in context of armed conflict in Congo. Medical consequences were unwanted pregnancies leading to unsafe abortions, STIs and physical injuries. Results argue in favor of effective public health interventions for a better prevention and care of victims during and after armed conflict.
Rape and HIV as Methods of Waging War: Epidemiological Criminology’s Response  [PDF]
Ishita Chowdhury, Mark M. Lanier
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21006
Abstract: Rape is normally committed, examined and conceptualized as an act committed by an individual and is explained as an act of power and control over the victims. Rape is less often examined from the context of group behavior and as a function of group dynamics. In wartime, rape has historically been associated with “spoils of war” and rape has only recently been used a tactical weapon of war. One tactical objective of rape is to demoralize populations and a more sinister objective is to promote slow genocide when systematic rape is coupled with high rates of HIV infection such as is found in much of continental Africa. We provide an integrative theoretical response, Epidemiological Criminology, and specific policy suggestions to combat this crime.
Place of Pheromone in Rape  [PDF]
Kalanghot Padmanabhan Skandhan, Osanai Kaoru, Buddhiwanthanally Manohar Mukund, Balakrishnan Sumangala
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.31005

The aim of the study was to find out if pheromone was one of the responsible factors leading to rape. Search in literature revealed many interesting facts. Majority of rape took place on the day or nearer to ovulation. Many rape victims became pregnant. In normal life, among couples most of the sexual intercourse happened on this day, more than on other days. Smell of the women on this day was different and was more attractive to men. Vaginal smell also differed on this day. One study showed many men were able to recognize a womans urine of ovulation day by its smell. It was not similar on other days. All above lead us to conclude that women exuded a sex attractant or pheromone on the day of ovulation which attracted men. Probably this is the hidden biological cause ending in rape.

Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Evaluation after Rape: A Case Study of a Teenage Girl  [PDF]
Lucía Ester Rizo-Martínez, Miguel ángel Guevara, Luis Francisco Cerdán, Francisco Abelardo Robles-Aguirre, Araceli Sanz-Martin, Marisela Hernández-González
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.46027
Abstract: Although rape is an event with a high incidence worldwide, there is currently no single consensus about both the general effects and the diagnosis and treatment of this. To evaluate the consequences of rape, a teenage girl was evaluated at two moments: a month-and-a-half and then a year-and-a-half after being raped. Clinical measurements, neuropsychological testing and electroencephalographic recording (EEG) were conducted in four conditions: eyes closed, eyes open, and during performance of two tasks: Towers of Hanoi and Wisconsin. Observations showed subsyndromal symptoms of post-traumatic stress on the first evaluation, and close-to-normal scores on the neuropsychological and cognitive tests in both assessments. Decreased cortical EEG synchronization, mainly in the fast frequencies and in almost all conditions, was obtained in the second evaluation. The results obtained in this study may indicate an early development in the brain, which is discussed in light of current literature on this topic.
Indicadores comportamentais de propens?o ao homicídio em agressores sexuais
Costa, Christian da Silva;Mello, Marcelo Feijó de;
Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0047-20852012000100007
Abstract: objective: we evaluated the association between personality characteristics and type of rape (with or without the victim's death). methods: as a strategy to study, we used behavioral indicators that may be associated with antisocial personality in order to differentiate the externalizing behaviors of sex offenders who kill its victims. results: the sex offenders had externalizing behaviors related to antisocial personality. the group of individuals who committed rape resulting in death has these behavioral traits more prevalent later in life. conclusion: we conclude that sex offenders, appear to have indicators that allow a deeper investigation in relation to antisocial personality, but those who kill their victims differ in their historical behavior of those who do not commit murder subsequent to the act of rape. are indicators of behavioral propensity to murder sex offenders, are more commonly under the influence of alcohol/drugs during the act of rape, suicidality, premature start of criminal life and high impulsivity.
Estudo de mecanismos e fatores relacionados com o abuso sexual em crian?as e adolescentes do sexo feminino
Drezett, Jefferson;Caballero, Marcelo;Juliano, Yara;Prieto, Elizabeth T.;Marques, José A.;Fernandes, César E.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572001000500013
Abstract: objective: to study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. methods: retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between july 1994 and august 1999 at the women's health reference center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age <10 years), and 546 adolescents (age > or =10 and <20 years). the analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victim's situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. epi info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. results: significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. the presupposed violence (pv) was more frequent in the group of children (63.4%) and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%). innocentia consilli was exclusive pv among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abuser's. adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8%) and on their way to work or school (28.4%). most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. conclusions: children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places.
Estudio anatómico del himen y su repercusión en medicina legal
Latoche Fernández,Exequías; Latoche Rojas,Conrad;
Medicina Legal de Costa Rica , 1999,
Abstract: we studied the anatomical characteristic of the hymen in 403 women who resorted for a gynecologist survey in the legal medic division of trujillo for rape supposed or rape till 18 years old, with the exception of pregnant, married or living together women. the results were? about the hymen shape with non defloration 191 cases belonged to the annular type (47,39%), 72 cases to the labial (17,87%), 55 cases to the semilunar (13,65%), 34 cases to the fringed (8,44%), 2 cases to het double membrane (0,49%) and one case with septum (0,25%). also we found 20 cases of hymen with recent defloration (4,96%) and 28 cases with ancient defloration (6,95%). for the hymenal aperture 136 cases were of small size (33,75%), 84 cases mediums (20,84%), and 135 cases larges (33,50%). concerning to the condition of hymenal hole 155 cases were dilatables (38,46%), 21 cases dilated (5,22%), 176 cases normals (43,67%) and 3 cases anomalous (0,74%). respect to the repercussion in legal medicine, only can affirm, anatomically, that have been rape if there is tearing of hymenal membrane recent or ancient; also, we can say when a hymen is dilatable or is dilated, being these the more difficult to value because can not assure if had or not had rape.
Los "vinos de Dios" (Alegato contra la pena de muerte): Mendoza, Reino de Chile, siglo XVII
Atenea (Concepción) , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-04622006000200006
Abstract: captain juan de puebla y reinoso was a neighbouring land owner and member of the town council of mendoza, capital of the province of cuyo of the kingdom de chile. after being involved in a scandalous erotic relationship, puebla was accused of the crime of rape and condemned to hanging. presumed divine intervention lead to his pardon after which a new life began for him, marked by social, political and economic success. as a result, don juan initiated a family of entrepreneurs that over time would achieve clear leadership in the grape and wine industry of the region that currently occupies fifth place in world production and first place in latin american production. don juan's story is one of passion and scandal, together with the problems of a rigid spanish legal system and the initiation of an industry on the southern frontier of latin america
Mulheres vítimas de estrupo: contexto e enfrentamento dessa realidade
Sudário, Sandra;Almeida, Paulo César de;Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa;
Psicologia & Sociedade , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-71822005000300012
Abstract: this article, as part of the authors' dissertation for her masters degree, analyzes the experience of rape and the way victims face the problem. it also describes the behavior of the rapist based on the victims' view. five women, who were being attended in a hiv/aids reference hospital, answered semi-structured interviews that were submitted to the technique of content analysis. the results show the vulnerability of woman, not only in deserted places and public ways but also at work and at home. the victims use strategies of liberation and survival at the moment of rape, in face of the rapist who reveals himself as being cruel and cold, with emotional oscillations that may vary from death threats to crying after the rape. reaching out for assistance constitutes a real via cruxes for the victims. however, despite the traumas, they have demonstrated a profound capacity of resilience.
Violencia sexual contra las estudiantes de la Universidad de Caldas (Colombia): estudio de corte transversal
Moreno-Cubillos,Carmen Leonor; Osorio-Gómez,Luz Stella; Sepúlveda-Gallego,Luz Elena;
Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2007,
Abstract: sexual violence in colombia has led to many legal regulations and has become one of the ministry of social protection?s high-priority points of attention. objective and methodology: this was a cross-sectional study aimed at establishing the frequency of sexual violence against 950 female undergraduate students attending the caldas university by using anonymous and voluntary questionnaires (2,993 females were enrolled for 14 courses during the first academic period in 2004). results: 298 students from ten academic programmes filled in the questionnaires. 55 (18.4%) of the forms reported one or more violent events (sexual harassment and rape) during the entire time spent at university. the events were independently analysed, 84 cases of sexual harassment and 8 cases of rape being reported. 47.3% of the cases had happened during the first year of university life. as for the place of occurrence, 52.1% happened inside the university, the most frequent place being the classroom (16.3%). the aggressor was most frequently identified as being a teacher (26.1% of cases). harassment was most frequently qualified as being slight or verbal in 32 cases (34.8%). three out of the 8 rape cases happened during the first year of university life, 2 of them in the university?s bathrooms and 2 in the aggressor?s home. students from the physical education, nursing and veterinary medicine programmes reported the most independent cases (in descending order). conclusion: sexual violence is a phenomenon which is not foreign to a university setting and it appears in all its forms, from harassment verbal to rape, however, until now, the problem has not been assumed a high profile within caldas university.
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