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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5904 matches for " Rao Raghunatha "
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Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients  [PDF]
Ullagaddi Rajeshwari, Iyer Shobha, Rao Raghunatha, Bondada Andallu
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33A004
Abstract: Oxidative stress, a pervasive condition of increased number of reactive oxygen species, is now recognized to be prominent feature of various diseases and their progression. The relationship between antioxidants and levels of well-known markers of oxidative stress, measured as lipid peroxides and oxidized proteins reflect health indices. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia patients. The present study included 60 patients selected using standard questionnaire based on age, family history, Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary intake, with no other complications and 30 age and sex-matched healthy subjects. The median age of myeloid leukemia patients was 43 years and that of controls was 42 years. Out of 60 myeloid leukemia patients, 30 were in acute and 30 were in chronic state. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were evaluated in the patients and in the controls by assessing standard oxidative stress markers viz. plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxide levels in terms of malondialdehyde and oxidized proteins as protein carbonyls whereas antioxidant status was assessed in terms of serum non enzymatic antioxidant levels. There was a significant increase (p < 0.01) in plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia patients as compared to healthy subjects. Antioxidant status as indicated by the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants viz. erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), serum β carotene, vitamin A & C and ceruloplasmin was found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in both the leukemia patients as compared to healthy participants. However, chronic myeloid leukemia patients had significantly (p < 0.05) higher oxidative stress and lower antioxidant status as compared to acute myeloid leukemia patients.
In silico evidence of signaling pathways of notch mediated networks in leukemia
Kaiser Jamil,Archana Jayaraman,Raghunatha Rao,Surya Narayana G. Raju
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Notch signaling plays a critical role in cell fate determination and maintenance of progenitors in many developmental systems. Notch receptors have been shown to be expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as to various degrees in peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. Our aim was to understand the protein interaction network, using Notch1 protein name as query in STRING database and we generated a model to assess the significance of Notch1 associated proteins in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). We further analyzed the expression levels of the genes encoding hub proteins, using Oncomine database, to determine their significance in leukemogenesis. Of the forty two hub genes, we observed that sixteen genes were underexpressed and eleven genes were overexpressed in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic samples in comparison to their expression levels in normal cells. Of these, we found three novel genes which have not been reported earlier- KAT2B, PSEN1 (underexpressed) and CDH2 (overexpressed).These three identified genes may provide new insights into the abnormal hematopoietic process observed in Leukemia as these genes are involved in Notch signaling and cell adhesion processes. It is evident that experimental validation of the protein interactors in leukemic cells could help in the identification of new diagnostic markers for leukemia.
Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT/visfatin) inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling and proteoglycan synthesis in human articular chondrocytes
Raghunatha R Yammani, Richard F Loeser
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3705
Abstract: Human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal ankle cartilage were pretreated with eNAMPT (0.1 to 5.0 μg/ml) overnight followed by stimulation with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) for 24 hours, and proteoglycan synthesis was measured by [35S]sulfate incorporation. Chondrocytes were pretreated with eNAMPT overnight followed by IGF-1 for 10 minutes, and the cell lysates were immunoblotted for various signaling proteins that are activated by IGF-1 using phosphospecific antibodies. In addition, chondrocytes were pretreated with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor (U0126) prior to stimulation with eNAMPT and IGF-1.Pretreatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT inhibited IGF-1-stimulated proteoglycan synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT inhibited IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1 and AKT. Interestingly, pretreatment of chondrocytes with eNAMPT did not inhibit IGF-1-mediated phosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor; however, it stimulated a sustained phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway restored IGF-1-mediated insulin receptor substrate-1 and AKT phosphorylation.Our study demonstrates that eNAMPT/visfatin inhibits IGF-1 function in articular chondrocytes by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway independent of the IGF-1 receptor. Since eNAMPT levels are elevated in the synovial fluid of OA patients, the signaling pathway activated by eNAMPT could contribute to IGF-1 resistance in OA.Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) [1,2]. Emerging data have shown that metabolic factors associated with obesity, including adipokines, play an important role in the progression of OA, prompting some to classify OA as a metabolic disease. Several adipokines, including leptin, resistin, and adiponectin, have been found in synovial fluid from
Performance Appraisal in Medium Scale Defence Store Manufacturing Firms in and Around Hyderabad : A Perspective and an Approach
Sunil Kumar,K Kalidas,D Raghunatha Reddy
International Journal on Research and Development : A Management Review , 2013,
Abstract: Performance Appraisal (PA) is defined as a systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to his potentialities for a better job, more precisely, featuring systematic/ periodic process, evaluating process, future oriented, determining employee’s potentialities / development with objectives of providing feedback, facilitating promotions/lay-off decisions, encouraging performance improvement, motivating superior performance, setting and measuring goals, counselling poor performers, determining compensation changes, encouraging coaching and mentoring, supporting manpower planning, determining individual/organizational training and development needs and improving overall organizational performance. This paper aims, by further improvements of existing PA system, for betterment of employees and the medium scale defence store manufacturing firms in and around Hyderabad. There is also scope of undertaking of empirical research/study based on primary and secondary data, in future, by adopting suitable research methodology/statistical analysis tools. This paper is purely an approach one and discusses current perspectives of performance appraisal in the firms. Therefore, no statistical date has been used
A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO WORKING OF WEB SEARCH ENGINE
Vijaya Kumar P N,Raghunatha Reddy V
International Journal of Computer & Electronics Research , 2013,
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to present the anatomy of a large scale Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Web search engine by using the system architecture of large search engines such as Google, Bing, and Yahoo as a prototype. The paper walks you through the search engine processes from the point of entering the search query into the text box to retrieval of the relevant web pages to the user with a practical approach. To demonstrate whole system of search engine working a Web crawler is developed and implemented in java V 1.7.0_03, MySQL5.1, Apache Tomcat V6 were used as database and server respectively. The paper describes in detail the basic tasks a search engine performs. The process is too complex and many agents like crawler, indexer, and repository are involved in performing their jobs. An overview of each agent is provided in a practical way. [2] We have various types of search engines like Crawler-Based Search Engines, Directories, Hybrid Search Engines, Meta Search Engines, and Specialty Search Engines. The paper covers general purpose Crawler-Based Search Engine only.
Strong Impact of TGF-β1 Gene Polymorphisms on Breast Cancer Risk in Indian Women: A Case-Control and Population-Based Study
Singh Pooja, Amirtharaj Francis, Singh Rajender, Rakesh Tamang, Raja Rajkumar, Karan Singh Saini, Kaling Megu, Madhu Mati Goel, Daminani Surekha, Digumarthi Raghunatha Rao, Lakshmi Rao, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Sandeep Kumar, Surender Kumar, Satti Vishnupriya, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Mahendra Pal Singh Negi, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Rituraj Konwar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075979
Abstract: Introduction TGF-β1 is a multi-functional cytokine that plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Critical role of TGF-β1 signaling in breast cancer progression is well documented. Some TGF-β1 polymorphisms influence its expression; however, their impact on breast cancer risk is not clear. Methods We analyzed 1222 samples in a candidate gene-based genetic association study on two distantly located and ethnically divergent case-control groups of Indian women, followed by a population-based genetic epidemiology study analyzing these polymorphisms in other Indian populations. The c.29C>T (Pro10Leu, rs1982073 or rs1800470) and c.74G>C (Arg25Pro, rs1800471) polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene were analyzed using direct DNA sequencing, and peripheral level of TGF-β1 were measured by ELISA. Results c.29C>T substitution increased breast cancer risk, irrespective of ethnicity and menopausal status. On the other hand, c.74G>C substitution reduced breast cancer risk significantly in the north Indian group (p = 0.0005) and only in the pre-menopausal women. The protective effect of c.74G>C polymorphism may be ethnicity-specific, as no association was seen in south Indian group. The polymorphic status of c.29C>T was comparable among Indo-Europeans, Dravidians, and Tibeto-Burmans. Interestingly, we found that Tibeto-Burmans lack polymorphism at c.74G>C locus as true for the Chinese populations. However, the Brahmins of Nepal (Indo-Europeans) showed polymorphism in 2.08% of alleles. Mean TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in patients in comparison to controls (p<0.001). Conclusion c.29C>T and c.74G>C polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene significantly affect breast cancer risk, which correlates with elevated TGF-β1 level in the patients. The c.29C>T locus is polymorphic across ethnically different populations, but c.74G>C locus is monomorphic in Tibeto-Burmans and polymorphic in other Indian populations.
A comparative evaluation of skin and nerve histopathology in single skin lesion leprosy
Reddy Raghunatha,Singh Gurcharan,Sacchidanand S,Okade Rajendra
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Abstract: Background: In spite of leprosy being a disease of nerves, ROM therapy for single skin lesion leprosy was based on clinical trials without much evidence-based studies of nerve pathology. The present study was undertaken to compare the histology of skin and nerve in single skin lesion leprosy, and to assess the scientific rationale and justification of single dose ROM therapy. Methods: Twenty-seven untreated patients with single skin lesion without significantly thickened peripheral nerves were selected. Skin and nearby pure cutaneous nerve biopsies were studied under both H&E and Fite′s stain. Results: All the skin biopsies were negative for AFB and clinico-pathological correlation was positive in 51.85% of skin biopsy specimens. Histopathological diagnosis of leprosy was evident in 55.5% of clinically normal looking nerves, with AFB positivity in 29.6% of nerve biopsy specimens. Correlation between clinical diagnosis and nerve histopathology was poor (26%). Conclusions: Single skin lesion without thickened peripheral nerves as criteria for single dose ROM therapy is not logical, since the histological diagnosis of leprosy in normal looking nerves with presence of AFB is revealed in this study. Pure cutaneous nerve biopsy is a simple outpatient procedure, without complications. This study emphasizes the need to consider nerve pathology as an important tool for further therapeutic recommendations, than just clinical trials and skin pathology alone. Though single dose ROM therapy has been withdrawn recently, the principle holds good for any future therapeutic recommendations.
CD-3 positive extranodal T-cell lymphoma of nasal type with skin involvement
Reddy Raghunatha,Singh Gurcharan,Prathima K,Harendra Kumar M
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2006,
Abstract: A 40-year-old previously healthy lady presented with nasal obstruction and localized plaques over the right arm. She developed complete nasal obstruction due to a mass in the right nasal cavity and skin lesions that ulcerated to present as ecthyma gangrenosum like lesions. Patient′s condition deteriorated fast and she developed icterus with fatal outcome within 4 weeks of developing skin lesions. Nasal and skin biopsy revealed angiocentric T-cell lymphoma, which on immuno-phenotyping revealed CD-3 positive; and CD-20, CD-30, ALK and EMA negativity. She was seronegative for HIV. Final diagnosis of CD-3 positive extranodal T-cell lymphoma of nasal type was made. Extranodal T-cell lymphomas are very aggressive NHLs with poor prognosis. Prognosis depends on histology, stage of the disease and sites of involvement. NK/T cell lymphoma of nasal type is common with EBV association. Skin involvement is rare and is also an indicator of poor prognosis.
Clinical Efficacy of Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) in Allergic Rhinitis  [PDF]
Rao Sukhesh
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24066
Abstract: Though efficacy of Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (ASIT) has been proved in many studies, reports about success in clinical practice and under field conditions in alleviating the suffering or decreasing the morbidity in patients of Allergic Rhinitis are few. 260 patients of Allergic Rhinitis without coexisting diseases were included. Skin prick test was done on all patients. ASIT was initiated with common inhalant indoor allergens as per standard protocol and patients were assessed at the start and at 2 m, 6 m and 18 months of ASIT. ASIT was able to significantly reduce the symptom score in all the three groups namely sneezing, rhinorrhoea and nasal itching (p < 0.001). Concurrently it was also able to produce a significant reduction in the usage of concomitant drug intake (p < 0.001) thereby implying a decrease in morbidity. When assessed regarding clinical efficacy, ASIT was found to be satisfactory or highly effective in more than 75% patients. ASIT has got a role in clinical practice in polysensitized patients in field conditions. This is based on the evidence that besides decrease in hypersensitivity/symptoms, it also has an effect on minimizing the necessity of taking drugs to relieve the symptoms, which has strong implications of economics and toxicity, while treating patients.
Going beyond Computation and Its Limits: Injecting Cognition into Computing  [PDF]
Rao Mikkilineni
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.331248
Abstract: Cognition is the ability to process information, apply knowledge, and change the circumstance. Cognition is associated with intent and its accomplishment through various processes that monitor and control a system and its environment. Cognition is associated with a sense of “self” (the observer) and the systems with which it interacts (the environment or the “observed”). Cognition extensively uses time and history in executing and regulating tasks that constitute a cognitive process. Whether cognition is computation in the strict sense of adhering to Turing-Church thesis or needs additional constructs is a very relevant question for addressing the design of self-managing (autonomous) distributed computing systems. In this paper we argue that cognition requires more than mere book-keeping provided by the Turing machines and certain aspects of cognition such as self-identity, self-description, self-monitoring and self-management can be implemented using parallel extensions to current serial von-Neumann stored program control (SPC) Turing machine implementations. We argue that the new DIME (Distributed Intelligent Computing Element) computing model, recently introduced as the building block of the DIME network architecture, is an analogue of Turing’s O-machine and extends it to implement a recursive managed distributed computing network, which can be viewed as an interconnected group of such specialized Oracle machines, referred to as a DIME network. The DIME network architecture provides the architectural resiliency, which is often associated with cellular organisms, through auto-failover; auto-scaling; live-migration; and end-to-end transaction security assurance in a distributed system. We argue that the self-identity and self-management processes of a DIME network inject the elements of cognition into Turing machine based computing as is demonstrated by two prototypes eliminating the complexity introduced by hypervisors, virtual machines and other layers of ad-hoc management software in today’s distributed computing environments.
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