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A Wireless Networked Control System using 802.11b is used to model fault-tolerance at the controller level of an industrial workcell. The fault-tolerance study in this paper presents the cascading of two independent workcells where each controller must be able to handle the load of both cells in case of failure of the other one. The intercommunication is completely wireless between the cells and this feature is investigated. The model incorporates unmodified 802.11b and 802.11g for communication. Sensors send sampled data to both controllers and the controllers to exchange a watchdog. The fault-free and faulty models are both simulated using OPNET Network Modeler. External interference on the critical intercommunication link is also investigated. Results of simulations are presented based on a 95% confidence analysis, guaranteeing correct system performance.
In this work,
nodal-disk segments (4-6 mm in diameter × 5-6 mm in length) were
obtained from established shoot culture, resulted from disinfected tomato
seedlings, and they were suitable to induce different organogenic pathway under
the influence of specific hormonal treatment. Application of BAP (1-2.5 mg/l)
alone or in combination of 0.5 mg/l NAA resulted in induction of shoot formation.
Somatic embryogenesis was rarely appeared (6%) when relatively low
concentration of BAP (1.5 mg/l) with low concentration of IAA (0.5 mg/l IAA)
was applied. Root induction was triggered when nodal explants or shoot cuttings
were cultured on MS medium with (1 mg/l IAA, IBA or NAA) or without auxins, but
the best result was obtained when 1 mg/l IAA was used. Application of 0.5 mg/l
NAA stimulated callus formation but the best result was obtained when the three
different phytohormoes were used (0.5 mg/l 2,4-D + 1 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP).
These results indicated that nodal segments, as described in this protocol, can
be used as alternative to other types of explants such as cotyledon, hypocotyl
and leaf explants.