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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 118081 matches for " Ramanathan T "
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Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) from Selected Indian Cities—A Case Study for Its Sustainable Utilisation  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL. Ramanathan, T. Kuriakose
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.42019

Utilisation of Municipal Solid Waste is important to curb the ever rising demand of scarce land for its disposal. Changing life style patterns, particularly in urban areas, has led to increase in generation of MSW. Municipal solid waste from Indian cities estimated to have 40% - 60% organic matter, which could be recycled as compost. The most suitable way to recycle it with low investment is aerobic composting using windrow method. With the compliance of Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000, many cities in India are making compost with organic portion of MSW. Before applying MSWC for agricultural uses, it is important to inventories heavy metals in compost to assess its toxicity. In the present study the compost samples were quantified for its toxicity from three highly populated cities of India, i.e., Delhi (Capital of India), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Bangalore (Karnataka). The MSWC samples were analysed for total heavy metals and in extractable fractions. Few samples were found with higher concentration of metals then the prescribed limits for its application as compost in Indian MSW rules, whereas, samples have not showed significant heavy metals concentration in extractable fractions. Therefore, studied MSW compost samples had demonstrated its suitability to use as green compost.

Routing Strategy Selection for Zigbee Mesh Networks  [PDF]
Ramanathan Karthikeyan
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.37081
Abstract: Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Low Rate-Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN) standard, the Zigbee standard has been proposed to interconnect simple, low rate and battery powered wireless devices. The deployment of Zigbee network is expected to facilitate numerous applications such as Home-appliance networks, home healthcare, medical monitoring and environmental sensors. An effective routing scheme is more important for Zigbee mesh networks. In order to achieve effective routing in Zigbee Mesh networks, a Zigbee protocol module is realized using NS-2. The suitable routing for different data services in the Zigbee application layer and a best routing strategy for Zigbee mesh network are proposed. The simulation shows the selection of suitable routing for continuous data services and for bursting data services in the Zigbee application layer and the comparison of three routing strategies namely ERD (All packets Enable Route Discovery), SRD (All packets Suppress Route Discovery) and BOS (routing Based on Data Services) in the aspects of Efficiency and Overhead.
Phylogeny of Indian Rhizophoraceae Based on the Molecular Data from Chloroplast tRNALEUUAA Intergenic Sequences
S. Gurudeeban,K. Satyavani,T. Ramanathan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Molecular identification data of unexplored Indian Rhizophoraceae an eco-friendly mangroves are an imperative aspect in molecular phylogenetics. We describe the phylogenetic relationships among the Rhizophoraceae genus Rhizophora, Ceriops and Bruguiera using tRNA Leu (UAA) intron sequences as a molecular marker. The results of present study reveals congeneric relationship between R. apiculata, R. mucronata, B. gymnorhiza indicating a high degree of gene flow within them and the pairwise distribution of study plants among Rhizophoraceae family. The phylogram constructed using tRNA Leu sequence clearly clustered the species of the same genus in individual group. The stem-loop could be divided into two classes, both built up from two base pairing heptanucleotide repeats. Size variation was primarily caused by different numbers of repeats but some strains also contained additional sequences in this stem-loop. The statistical summaries of DNA sequence data can enable to identify the structural signature of the genome as well as to classify phylogenetic relationships among different species reflected in the difference of genetic diversity distributions within their DNA sequences.
Genetic Identification of Ceriops decandra (Chiru Kandal) using tRNA (Leu) Molecular Marker
S. Gurudeeban,K. Satyavani,T. Ramanathan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Ceriops decandra is a glabrous shrub belongs to a family Rhizophoraceae distributed in a region including Southeast India, East Africa and Australia. The present study aimed to identify a tool in identifying the mangrove at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the principal agarose gel band revealed that Ceriops decandra and deposited in NCBI with the accession No. JN871232.
Bitter Apple (Citrullus colocynthis): An Overview of Chemical Composition and Biomedical Potentials
S. Gurudeeban,K. Satyavani,T. Ramanathan
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The present study reveals the medicinal uses, chemical compositions and examines recent investigations on the therapeutic activities of extracts and chemicals identified from Citrullus colocynthis. The article also presents some of the functions of the chemicals present and attempt to emphasize and create an awareness of the great potential of Citrullus colocynthis as a source of novel agrochemicals, compounds of medicinal value and biologically active compounds.
Heavy Metal Concentration from Shrimp Culture Ponds at Point Calimer Area
G. Umamaheswari,M. Srinivasan and T. Ramanathan
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Palk strait estuarine water was highly polluted by Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn and Hg. The study was carryout the interactions between heavy metals and microorganisms. The study area paying attention on the role of probiotic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus sp. to remove the metals from polluted nine aquaculture ponds through the way of bioremediation, bioaccumulation and mineralization process. The highest inhibition zone was absorbed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Hg (3.796 mm) and Cu (0.060 mm), Aeromonas hydrophila against Pb (5.526 mm) and Bacillus cereus against Zn (4.504 mm) and Fe (1.635 mm). No inhibition zone was produced by Azotobacter beijerinckii and control also maintained.
Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from Three Mangrove Environment in Tamil Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India
G. Silambarasan,T. Ramanathan,K. Kathiresan
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples, of the three mangroves viz Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves south east coast of India. As many as 39 Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11). The species such as Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina, Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria formosa, Lyngbya major, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya majuscule, Lyngbya mesotricha, Phormidium stagnina, Plectonema terebrans and Plectonema putuale and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as Synechococcus elongatus. Among the species Synechocystis salina, Oscillatoria salina, Phormidium ambiguum, Phormidium tenue, Spirulina major distributed all the mangroves.
Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad
Satyavani K, Gurudeeban S, Ramanathan T, Balasubramanian T
Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-9-43
Abstract: The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay.The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2), while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1). This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment.Citrullus colocynthis (Bitter cucumber) belongs to the family of cucurbitaceae, which are abundantly grown along the arid soils of Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu. It has a large, fleshy perennial root, which sends out slender, tough, angular, scabrid vine-like stems. The therapeutic potentials viz., antimicrobial [1], anti inflammatory [2], anti diabetic [3] and anti oxidant [4] effect of Citrullus colocynthis have reported in our laboratory. For conservation of this potent medicinal plant we have micro propagated and transplanted to the coastal region of Parangipettai.Nanoparticles usually referred as
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
Deformation Stability of Al 7075/20%SiCp (63 μm) Composites during Hot Compression  [PDF]
M. Rajamuthamilselvan, S. Ramanathan
Geomaterials (GM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2012.24017
Abstract: In Stir cast Al 7075/20%SiCp composites were subjected to compression testing at strain rates and temperatures ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 s–1 and from 300°C to 500°C respectively. And the associated microstructural transformations and instability phenomena were studied by observations of the optical electron microscope. The power dissipation efficiency and instability parameter were calculated following the dynamic material model and plotted with the temperature and logarithm of strain rate to obtain processing maps for strains of 0.5. The processing maps present the instability zones at higher strain rates. The result shows that with increasing strain, the instability zones enlarge. The microstructural examination shows that the interface separates even the particle cracks or aligns along the shear direction of the adiabatic shear band in the instability zones. The domain of higher efficiencies corresponds to dynamic recrystallization during the hot deformation. Using the processing maps, the optimum processing parameters of stain rates and temperatures can be chosen for effective hot deformation of Al 7075/20%SiCp composites.
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