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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1240 matches for " Ramadhan Wanjala Salim "
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Application of SWAT Model to the Olifants Basin: Calibration, Validation and Uncertainty Analysis  [PDF]
Charles Gyamfi, Julius Musyoka Ndambuki, Ramadhan Wanjala Salim
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83033
Abstract: The application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Olifants Basin in South Africa was the focus of our study with emphasis on calibration, validation and uncertainty analysis. The Basin was discretized into 23 sub-basins and 226 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) using 3 arc second (90 m × 90 m) pixel resolution SRTM DEM with stream gauge B7H015 as the Basin outlet. Observed stream flow data at B7H015 were used for model calibration (1988-2001) and validation (2002-2013) using the split sample approach. Relative global sensitivity analysis using SUFI-2 algorithm was used to determine sensitive parameters to stream flow for calibration of the model. Performance efficiency of the Olifants SWAT model was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), Percent Bias (PBIAS) and Root Mean Square Error-Observation Standard deviation Ratio (RSR). Sensitivity analysis revealed in decreasing order of significance, runoff curve number (CN2), alpha bank factor (ALPHA_BNK), soil evaporation compensation factor (ESCO), soil available water capacity (SOIL_AWC, mm H2O/mm soil), groundwater delay (GW_ DELAY, days) and groundwater “revap” coefficient (GW_REVAP) to be the most sensitive parameters to stream flow. Analysis of the model during the calibration period gave the following statistics; NSE = 0.88; R2 = 0.89; PBIAS = -11.49%; RSR = 0.34. On the other hand, statistics during the validation period were NSE = 0.67; R2 = 0.79; PBIAS = -20.69%; RSR = 0.57. The observed statistics indicate the applicability of the SWAT model in simulating the hydrology of the Olifants Basin and therefore can be used as a Decision Support Tool (DST) by water managers and other relevant decisions making bodies to influence policy directions on the management of watershed processes especially water resources.
Abstract: Article examines the issue of psychological pricing. The formulation of the research is whether the psychological price already meet the criteria for a fair price and not contrary to business ethics in Islam. Research is a research library. The study is qualitative. The research approach is hermeneutic data analysis technique used is descriptive-analysis-critical. The study's findings are a) The relationship between ethics and business is something that cannot be separated from each other, and b) pricing of psychological conflict with Islamic business ethics.
Abstract: The research theme is the financial and banking institutions. This article aims to look at the money market and the capital market in the perspective of Islam. The article is the result of the study of literature. Differences in the Islamic capital market with conventional capital market can be seen in the instruments and mechanisms of the transaction. Islamic stock index difference with conventional stock indexes lies in the issuer's shares of criteria that must comply with the principles of sharia. The main instruments are traded in the Islamic capital markets and capital markets are conventional stocks. Expected to Islamic capital market is really a meeting place between people who are in need of capital to investors who want to invest in productive sectors.
Plasticization Effect on the Photodegradation of Poly (4-Chlorostyrene) and Poly (4-Bromostyrene) Films  [PDF]
Khalid E. Al Ani, Afrah Essa Ramadhan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.16052
Abstract: The photodegradation of thin films of poly (4-chlorostyrene) and poly (4-bromostyrene) with 265 nm radiation in the presence of oxygen and as a function of irradiation time has been studied mainly using fluorescence, FT-IR, and UV-VIS spectroscopic techniques. The influence of phthalate and terephthalate plasticizers on photo-oxidative degradation was also investigated. Phthalate and terephthalate-plasticizers were found to increase the photodegradation processes in polymeric chains. On the other hand, the intensity of absorption was also found to increase with irradiation time and in the intensity of a new absorption band at longer wavelength. The appearance of new fluorescence bands in the irradiated polymer films can well indicate a possibility of photodegradation of polymer films. In addition, the observed increase in the intensities of the carbonyl and hydroxyl regions of the FT-IR spectra, providing evidence for the photodegradation as well as the photo-oxidation of polymeric chains. The increase in the analyzed ranges was attributed to the formation of alcohols, aliphatic ketones and to the increase in the number of (C=C) that resulted from hydrogen abstraction during chains - scission.
Angiosarcoma of the mandible: Metastasis from a primary tumor of the right atrium of the heart  [PDF]
Anwar Ramadhan, Helena Willén, Andreas Thor
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.21015

Angiosarcoma of the heart is a rare tumor with very poor prognosis especially in a patient with multiple metastases. We present a case of a 39-year-old woman with angiosarcoma of the heart metastasing to the right side of the mandible, a situation not often found previously in the literature.

The International Experience in Private Sector Development: Lessons for Kuwait  [PDF]
Mohammad Ramadhan, Marwa Al-Musallam
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.44038

The State of Kuwait is a small rich oil-based economy characterized by dominance of the large public sector in major economic activities. Such imbalanced structure has limited the role of the private sector in economic activities and has adversely affected economic growth. Based on the review of international experience in private sector development, this paper aimed to substantiate the impact of both private and public sectors growth on economic performance. Analysis of Kuwait's public expenditures verified the public sector dependency on oil revenues and inefficient utilization of resources. The theoretical review revealed a positive direct relationship between high GDP growth rate and the increased role of the private sector in the economy. Moreover, the review of recent transitional economies experiences in constructive economic transformation can be considered as an evidence of a rapid effective private sector growth. Finally, the analysis also demonstrated that Kuwait's public sector expenditures depict a rent seeking behaviour that has negatively impacted the society welfare.

Kinetic Study of the Effect of Plasticization on Photodegradation of Polystyrene Solid Films  [PDF]
Khalid E. Al Ani, Afrah Essa Ramadhan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.67064
Abstract: The effects of UV-irradiation on stability of pure and blended polystyrene films with phthalate and terephthalate plasticizers were studied in presence of air. UV-visible, fluorescence and FT-IR techniques were used to study the photodegradation of irradiated polystyrene films. Increase of irradiation times of polystyrene films caused an increase in the intensity of the main absorption band and the increase in the intensity of a new absorption band at longer wavelength, thus indicating a possibility of photo degradation of polystyrene chains. The influence of added plasticizers, dimethyl terephthalate, diethyl terephthalate, dioctyl terephthalate, dioctylphthalate, and dibutyl phthalate on photo-quenching of the polymer fluorescence band was also investigated, and found to increase the photodegradation processes in polymeric chains. On the other hand, the intensity of excimer and monomer fluorescence bands maxima was also found to decrease with a small red shift with the increase in irradiation times. These changes may be attributed to the formation of new photo-products resulted from the photodegradation of irradiated polymeric chains. The photo- quenching rate constant was found to increase with the increase of the molar mass and bulkiness of the used plasticizers and to increase with the increase in irradiation time. The rate constant of the photo quenching process was found to decrease with the increase in the percent of added plasticizers, indicating that the added plasticizers might act as UV-absorbers which inhibited the photodegradation process. The analysis of the FT-IR spectra of the irradiated and nonirradiated samples showed a noticeable formation of new broad band centered at 1727 cm-1, and its intensity was found to increase with the increase in irradiation time and also with the increase in the amount of added plasticizer. In addition, the observed increase in the intensities of the carbonyl and hydroxyl absorption regions of the FT-IR spectra provided evidence for the photodegradation as well as photo-oxidation of polymeric chains.
Effect Analysis of Volume Fraction of Nanofluid Al2O3-Water on Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient in Small Modular Reactor  [PDF]
Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Ery Diniardi, Rasma  
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.61008
Abstract: Development and use of nuclear energy is currently growing very rapidly, in order to achieve increasingly advanced technology, both in terms of design, economic factors and safety factors. Thermal-hydraulics aspects of nuclear reactors should be done with calculation and near-perfect condition. Including today began development of a nuclear reactor with low power below 300 MW, or commonly called the Small Modular Reactor (SMR). One is CAREM-25 developed by Argentina with a power of 25 MW, where in CAREM already using natural circulation system and the use of nanofluid as coolant fluid. In this research, analytic modeling of thermal-hydraulics nuclear reactor SMR CAREM-25, when the nanofluid Al2O3-Water used as cooling fluid in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. Further to this analytic modeling will be done on CFD. Analytic modeling with CFD to determine the flow phenomena and distribution as well as the effect of nano-particles of Al2O3-Water based on the volume fraction (1% and 3%) of the coefficient of heat transfer by natural convection.
Development Program of Chemical Industry Based Computer Assisted Instruction for Students of Industrial Engineering Department in Indonesia  [PDF]
Leola Dewiyani, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Ery Diniardi
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.66033
Abstract: This study aims to improve the competence of students of the Department of Industrial Engineering in Indonesia in the subject of Chemical Industry, in particular through the model-based teaching materials CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) in the form of an interactive CD. In particular, the study was carried out for the purposes of: 1) designing and developing models of devices based learning CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) systematically in prototype form, 2) producing an interactive CD as a model learning devices Chemical Industry based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) to improve the competence of students of the Department of Industrial Engineering in Industrial chemistry courses. The benefits of this research are: 1) for the government, the results of this study can be used as a reference in implementing educational policies, especially to enhance the nation’s competitiveness in the era of informatics; and 2) for the Department of Industrial Engineering in Indonesia, the results of this research can be used to enhance learning that can improve the competence of students in the subject of Chemical Industry, which in turn can be passed with high achievement. Products produced in the first year are a design-based teaching materials CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) in prototype form, with the following steps: 1) pre- production which includes needs analysis, identifying and analyzing the needs based on the content of curriculum and learning model based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction), the development of a concept related to Chemical Industry, the development of multimedia content that includes developing materials, animation, and evaluation related to industrial chemicals, gathering material to make the recording sound, shooting, and editing with regard to the development of teaching materials chemical Industry based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction), as well as developing the storyboard as the layout of the multimedia contents by involving experts multimedia; 2) production process that includes design/design and conduct of programming a prototype which means at this stage of the design and development of teaching materials based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction); and 3) post-production which includes the evaluation justification experts, conducted trials on stakeholders, being revised based on input from experts, and doing packing and labeling.
Performance of an Axial Cascade  [PDF]
Basharat Salim
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.33024

A cascade is defined as an infinite row of equidistant similarly aerofoil bodies. The cascade is used to divert a flow stream with a minimal loss. The flow over an axial cascade presents a complicated intra blade fluid dynamic interaction that causes the flow to behave differently than the flow over a single aerofoil blade. A cascade tunnel in which different shapes of cascades could be tested for performance evaluation has been build. An axial flat plate cascade of 70 mm chord, 215 mm span and 0.55 pitch chord ratio has been tested in this tunnel for evaluating its aerodynamic performance. The results depict that the Reynolds number, incidence and blade angle of the cascade control the aerodynamic performance of the axial cascade.

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