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Background: Polypropylene meshes are commonly used in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, although they may cause complications. In this prospective study, a polyester mesh was compared to a polypropylene mesh. Methods: Transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic repair was performed in 160 consecutive male patients suffering from unilateral inguinal hernia. The first 80 cases received a polypropylene mesh (Parietene, Covidien, France), and a polyester mesh (Parietex, Covidien, France) was implanted in the second half of patients. Both groups were comparable with respect to clinical and demographic variables. Patients rated their pain using the visual analogue scale (VAS), and ultrasonography was performed on postoperative days 1 and 3 to measure seroma formation. Results: The duration of surgery and the length of stay were similar in both groups. Postoperative pain, measured on day 1 and 3, was significantly less in patients who had received a polyester mesh as compared to the polypropylene group. The size of local seroma was also significantly reduced in the polyester group. Complication rates were 10% in the polypropylene and 9% in the polyester group and included one early recurrence in each group. Conclusions: Polyester meshes may be useful in TAPP, as this mesh material produces less foreign body reaction with less seroma formation and lower pain levels than conventional polypropylene.