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Phytochemical Properties and Pharmcological Activities of Nicotiana Tabacum: A Review
Aarti Rawat, Rakesh Roshan Mali*
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Tobacco is an agricultural productprocessed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.In Indian agriculture, tobacco has a prominentplace. Tobacco could be developed as an important food crop in combination with its traditional use forsmoking and chewing. Tobacco plants are also used in plant bioengineering, and some of the more than 70species are grown as ornamentals. The chemistry of tobacco is unique with the presence of a widespectrum of chemical compounds of which nicotine, solanesol, malic and citric acid were identified aspotential chemicals which could be recovered and converted to value-added products. The alkaloid nicotineis popularly considered the most characteristic constituent of tobacco but nicotine is not highly addictive onits own. In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dippingtobacco. Because of the powerfully addictive properties of tobacco, tolerance and dependencedevelop.This situation necessitated to examine the green tobacco crop as a source for recovery ofphytochemicals alone. With the objective of maximizing bio-mass production for optimum recovery ofproteins, nicotine, solanesol and organic acids from green tobacco. Nicotine for treatment of Alzheimerdisease, Parkinson disease, depression and anxiety, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), pain, and obesity.
Effect of VAM fungi on nutrient uptake and plant growth performance of soybean
B.L. MALI, RAKESH SHAH and M.K. BHATNAGAR
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Inoculation of Glomus fasciculatum and G. mosseae at the time of sowing was found essential for maximum plant growth, root colonization and spores production. VAM application at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing had progressively reduced their beneficial effect. Mycorrhizal inoculation by layering method is highly significant while the effectively decreased with delayed application of inoculum at different time interval. This may be due to possible contact of VAM fungi with roots of soybean plants at initial stage eventually resulting in good colonization and establishment. Both VAM fungi were found most effective at higher concentration (40 and 50 g / pot) where maximum plant growth, colonization, spores production and nutrient (NPK) uptake was recorded. The effectively was low at lower (10 g/pot) VAM concentration tried. The response, however was much better in sterilized compared to unsterilized soil. Percent content and uptake of nutrient (NPK) was higher in soybean plants inoculated with VAM fungi. The increase in the nutrient uptake of NPK was found best when VAM inoculum applied at the time of sowing. The nutrient uptake increased with the increased in VAM inoculum concentration. The best NPK content and uptake were observed at 40 and 50 g inoculum per pot which shown good VAM colonization with improved uptake of nutrient by the soybean roots in rhizosphere area.
Host range of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola, the incitant of bacterial blight in cowpea
MUKESH GENA, RAKESH SHAH, K.S. JADON and B.L. MALI
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract:
Intelligent Video Object Classification Scheme using Offline Feature Extraction and Machine Learning based Approach
Chandra Mani Sharma,Alok Kumar Singh Kushwaha,Rakesh Roshan,Rabins Porwal
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Classification of objects in video stream is important because of its application in many emerging areas such as visual surveillance, content based video retrieval and indexing etc. The task is far more challenging because the video data is of heavy and highly variable nature. The processing of video data is required to be in real-time. This paper presents a multiclass object classification technique using machine learning approach. Haar-like features are used for training the classifier. The feature calculation is performed using Integral Image representation and we train the classifier offline using a Stage-wise Additive Modeling using a Multiclass Exponential loss function (SAMME). The validity of the method has been verified from the implementation of a real-time human-car detector. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately classify objects, in video, into their respective classes. The proposed object classifier works well in outdoor environment in presence of moderate lighting conditions and variable scene background. The proposed technique is compared, with other object classification techniques, based on various performance parameters.
Study of groundwater flow in the coarse gravel unsaturated zone by means of isotope hydrograph separation
Nina Mali
Geologija , 2008,
Abstract: The paper presents the use of isotope hydrograph separation method in the determination of snowmelt impact on groundwater dynamics and in the investigation of preferential flowin the high permeable coarse gravel unsaturated zone. Preferential flows as well as matrix flow dynamics are important for groundwater storage in the unsaturated zone and for pollution transport to the saturated zone. Data analysis is based on data collected during the time of sudden snowmelt in March 2004 in the Selni ka Dobrava lysimeter. The results indicate the piston flow effect phenomenon also in the high permeable coarse gravel aquifer at the time of infiltration of large quantitiesof water. The preferential flow influence decreases withdepth.A larger share of new water was observed upto 1.5 m depth (38 %), while it decreases with depth.
Water transport monitoring in an unsaturated zone – Case study: lysimeter Selni ka dobrava (Slovenia)
Nina Mali
Geologija , 2002,
Abstract: Pollution transport in an aquifer depends on its structure, upper unsaturated zone and lower saturated zone. In order to understand processes in the unsaturated zone, several hydrogeological field measurements must be done. A field laboratory- lysimeter in Selni{kadobrava was installed for the improvement of field measurements, and explanation of the parameters and processes in the unsaturated zone. The problems, which can be solved by means of investigations in a lysimeter, are defined in this paper. Described are also:concept of investigation planning, construction and equipment of the lysimeter, measurements of unsaturated zone parameters and processes, water sampling for physical, chemical and isotope analysis.
Why an Unbiased External R&D Evaluation System is Important for the Progress of Social Sciences—the Case of a Small Social Science Community
Franc Mali
Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/socsci2040284
Abstract: This article deals with the impact of external R&D evaluations as one of the institutional factors that can encourage (or discourage) the progress of the social sciences. A critical overview is presented of the increasing use of bibliometric indicators in the external R&D evaluation procedures employed by the Slovenian Research Agency, which is the leading research council for financing the public sector of social sciences in Slovenia. We attempt to establish that, in order to ensure a good external R&D evaluation practice for a small social science community, it is insufficient to only have reliable bibliometric meta-databases. It is argued that it is equally important to formulate very precise criteria to ascertain their validity.
Multifractal detrended moving average analysis of global temperature records
Provash Mali
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Multifractal structure of global monthly mean temperature anomaly time series over the period of 1850-2012 are studied in terms of the multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) analysis. We try to address the possible source(s) and the nature of multifractality in the time series data by comparing the results derived from the actual series with those from a set of shuffled and surrogate series. It is seen that the MFDMA method predicts a multifractal structure of the temperature anomaly records that is more or less similar to what was obtained from the multifractal detrended analysis for the same set of data. In our analysis the major contribution of multifractality in the data is found to be due to the long-range temporal correlation among the measurements, however the contribution of a fat-tail distribution function of the variables is not negligible. The existence of long-range correlation is also confirmed by the constancy of the local slopes of the fluctuation function over a sufficient scale intervals. The results of the moving average analysis are found to depend upon the location of the detrending window and tend to the observations of the multifractal detrended analysis for a specific choice of the location of the detrending window.
Functional a posteriori error estimate for a nonsymmetric stationary diffusion problem
Olli Mali
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, a posteriori error estimates of functional type for a stationary diffusion problem with nonsymmetric coefficients are derived. The estimate is guaranteed and does not depend on any particular numerical method. An algorithm for the global minimization of the error estimate with respect to the flux over some finite dimensional subspace is presented. In numerical tests, global minimization is done over the subspace generated by Raviart-Thomas elements. The improvement of the error bound due to the p-refinement of these spaces is investigated.
Error estimates for a certain class of elliptic optimal control problems
Olli Mali
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, error estimates are presented for a certain class of optimal control problems with elliptic PDE-constraints. It is assumed that in the cost functional the state is measured in terms of the energy norm generated by the state equation. The functional a posteriori error estimates developed by Repin in late 90's are applied to estimate the cost function value from both sides without requiring the exact solution of the state equation. Moreover, a lower bound for the minimal cost functional value is derived. A meaningful error quantity coinciding with the gap between the cost functional values of an arbitrary admissible control and the optimal control is introduced. This error quantity can be estimated from both sides using the estimates for the cost functional value. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical tests.
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