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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201142 matches for " Rajendra P. Pawa "
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L-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid Sulfate (LPCAS): A New Ionic Liquid for the Synthesis of 14-Aryl-14H-Dibenzo[a,j] Xanthenes under Solvent Free Condition  [PDF]
Vaibhav W. Godse, Sahebrao S. Rindhe, Laszlo Kotai, Pravin S. Kendrekar, Rajendra P. Pawa
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2017.72009
Abstract: A new Bronsted acidic ionic liquid, L-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid sulfate (LPCAS) was employed to promote one-pot synthesis of 14-aryl-14H-dibenzo [a,j] xanthenes via condensation reaction of aldehydes and 2-naphthol under solvent free condition. Distinguishing features of the methodology are excellent yield of products in shorter reaction time, cleaner reaction profile, eco-friendly nature and the use of inexpensive catalyst.
Mass of the Universe and the Redshift  [PDF]
Rajendra P. Gupta
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.81005
Abstract: Cosmological redshift is commonly attributed to the continuous expansion of the universe starting from the Big-Bang. However, expansion models require simplifying assumptions and multiple parameters to get acceptable fit to the observed data. Here we consider the redshift to be a hybrid of two effects: recession of distant galaxies due to expansion of the universe, and resistance to light propagation due to cosmic drag. The weight factor determining the contribution of the two effects is the only parameter that is needed to fit the observed data. The cosmic drag considered phenomenologically yields mass of the universe ≈?2 × 1053 kg. This implicitly suggests that the mass of the whole universe is causing the cosmic drag. The databases of extragalactic objects containing redshift z and distance modulus μ of galaxies up to z = 8.26 resulted in an excellent fit to the model. Also, the weight factor wD for expansion effect contribution to μ obtained from the data sets containing progressively higher values of μ?can be nicely fitted with \"\".
Static and Dynamic Components of the Redshift  [PDF]
Rajendra P. Gupta
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.83016
Abstract: We analyse the possibility that the observed cosmological redshift may be cumulatively due to the expansion of the universe and the tired light phenomenon. Since the source of both the redshifts is the same, they both independently relate to the same proper distance of the light source. Using this approach we have developed a hybrid model combining the Einstein de Sitter model and the tired light model that yields a slightly better fit to Supernovae Ia redshift data using one parameter than the standard ΛCDM model with two parameters. We have shown that the ratio of tired light component to the Einstein de Sitter component of redshift has evolved from 2.5 in the past, corresponding to redshift 1000, to its present value of 1.5. The hybrid model yields Hubble constant H0 =69.11(±0.53)km·s-1 ·Mpc-1 and the deceleration parameter q0 =-0.4. The component of Hubble constant responsible for expansion of the universe is 40% of H0 and for the tired light is 60% of H0. Consequently, the critical density is only 16% of its currently accepted value; a lot less dark matter is needed to make up the critical density. In addition, the best data fit yields the cosmological constant density parameter \"\" =0. The tired light effect may thus be considered equivalent to the cosmological constant in the hybrid model.
Evaluation of Non-Point Source N and P Loads in a Small Mixed Land Use Land Cover Watershed  [PDF]
Ashok Mishra, Rajendra Singh, Vijay P. Singh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.24042
Abstract: Non-point source pollution (NPS) of water resources has become a major problem in recent years due to more human interactions and disturbances to natural landscapes. The problem can have more impacts in sub-humid subtropical regions where high intensity monsoon rains have greater effects on hydrologic proc-esses and thus the assessment of those effects is necessitated for strategic water resources and environmental management. Since spatial and temporal changes of NPS pollutants are difficult to assess on a watershed scale, the assessment can be done effectively using a suitable water quantity-quality model coupled with GIS and remote sensing that incorporates spatial variations. The objective of this study was to assess the N and P loads from a small mixed type watershed comprising different land use land covers with the aid of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)-a hydrologic-water quality model. The model was calibrated for runoff and sediment transport and then simulation of associated N and P loads as NPS pollution was done and compared with measured values at the outlet of the watershed which is part of the DVC Command, Hazaribagh, India. The calibrated SWAT model was used to estimate the water soluble NO3-N, NH4-N, P, organic N and or-ganic P loads being transported as pollutants by runoff and percolated water. The estimates of these pollut-ants provided information on the extent of NPS pollution of water downstream. The results of the study re-veal that the NPS pollutant load in runoff varies with seasonal rainfall patterns and ranges from 2.57 to 4.52 kg/ha in case of NO3-N which accounts for a maximum load of 7661.40 kg of NO3-N in surface runoff from the watershed under study. The total loss of N from the watershed accounts for as high as 8.84 kg/ha, whereas the P load is 0.02 kg/ha. These losses can be as high as 14984.14 kg of total N and 50.85 kg of total P when estimated as NPS pollutants from the watershed. The study is therefore important to get an estimate of the extent of these pollutants and develop measures for mitigating the losses as nutrient as well as pollu-tion of water resources.
Hints at Quantum Characteristics of Light Signals Measured from a Human Subject  [PDF]
David Racine, Anshu Rastogi, Rajendra P. Bajpai
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2013.43011
Abstract:

We measure ultra-weak photon signals emitted from the hand of a human subject, either spontaneously or gradually decaying after local stress has been induced with five concentrations of H2O2. We analyze the photon distributions of both spontaneous and stimulated number of photons per measuring interval (bin sizes) according to statistics measure Fano Factor which leads to quantum optics, g(2)(0). We also fit either semi-classical based exponential or quantum grounded hyperbolic curves to the decays. Both indicators point towards an adequate description of the photon signal in an interpretation that is quantum. We extend the interpretation towards the suggestion of a quantum coherent aspect of the subject which, once placed in a therapeutic perspective, links to the holistic views on health.

Doris Lessing's The Grass is Singing: a Projection of Naturalism
Rajendra P Tiwari
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v1i1.10467
Abstract: This article explores the demonstration of naturalism in Doris Lessing’s first tragic novel the Grass is Singing. It relates how the main characters in the novel are influenced by their instinct, their social and economic environment and how their failure or success depends on their adaptability and ability to compete in the struggle for survival. It is based on library study and textual analysis. Result shows that the central characters, Mary Turner and Moses, are the victims of heredity (sexual instinct) and environment (social, economic and political forces), and Dick Turner suffers the consequence of his environment and his failure to prove himself in the competition or struggle for survival. ? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v1i1.10467 Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.1(1) 2013; 39-50
Pregnancy Specific Beta-1 Glycoprotein in Women with Eclampsia, Kaduna State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Jim M. Banda, Geoffrey C. Onyemelukwe, Bolanle O. P. Musa, Oladapo S. Shittu, Zulai A. Sarkin-Pawa, Aliyu A. Babadoko, Aisha I. Mamman, Adamu G. Bakari, Suraj Junaid
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2015.55021
Abstract: This was a comparative cross-sectional study of eclamptic and normal healthy pregnant women conducted in kaduna State, Nigeria to determine Pregnancy Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (PSG-1) levels in the peripheral blood of third trimester women with eclampsia (EC; n = 38), normal healthy pregnant and non pregnant women controls (PC; n = 25 and NPC; n = 25 respectively), age and parity matched, attending labour rooms/wards and Antenatal Clinics (ANC) of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria and four other Hospitals in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Participants with smear positive malaria, seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or any other known clinical infection were excluded from this study. Pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein levels were estimated using Quantikine ELISA kits. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Chicago, USA) and Graph pad Prism 6.0. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation while Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine the significant differences. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. The mean serum level of PSG-1 in EC was 2.53 ± 0.11 pg/ml, PC; 2.56 ± 0.03 pg/ml) and NPC; 0.62 ± 0.20 pg/ml. There was no significant difference between EC and PC (P > 0.05). Pregnant women (with and without EC) had significantly higher mean serum values compared to NPC p < 0.05. While pregnancy was associated with high levels of PSG-1, the study did not support the hypothesis of low PSG-1 level in EC. A longitudinal study to capture changes in PSG-I levels in the course of pregnancy as they manifest is recommended.
T Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Normal Pregnancies and Those Complicated by Eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria  [PDF]
J. M. Banda, B. O. P. Musa, G. C. Onyemelukwe, S. O. Shittu, A. A. Babadoko, A. G. Bakari, A. I. Mamman, A. Sarkin-Pawa, Surajudeen A. Junaid
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2016.63010
Abstract: Background: Eclampsia, the occurrence of generalized convulsion(s) in association with signs of preeclampsia [PE] (hypertension and proteinuria) in pregnancy has remained a significant public threat in Nigeria, contributing to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted in some selected hospitals in Kaduna State, between April 2014 and November 2015. Subjects and Methods: Blood (3 mls) was collected into an ethylenediaminetetraaccetic acid (EDTA) vacutainer tube from third trimester women diagnosed with eclampsia (EC; n = 38) and healthy pregnant controls (PC; n = 38)—age and parity matched and healthy non-pregnant controls (NPC; n = 38)—age matched. T Cell subpopulations and Complete Blood Count levels were measured by Sysmex, Auto blood analyzer and flow cytometry respectively. Participants with smear positive malaria, seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), any other clinical infection or refused consent were excluded from this study. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Result: Overall, results showed a depressed (mean ± Standard deviation (SD): CD3+ T cell (65.6 ± 15.5%; 1225.5 ± 401.5 cell/μL), CD4+ T cell (36.1 ± 8.7%; 657.1 ± 189.9 cell/μL), and a low CD4/CD8 value in women with EC (1.4 ± 0.5) and PC (1.5 ± 0.3) compared to NPC (1.9 ± 0.6) control (p < 05), while the total white blood cell count, and differential percentage neutrophils count were noted to be elevated among the eclamptic women (9.8 ± 4.9 × 109/L; 70.3 ± 12.0%) compared to PC (6.9 ± 3.6 × 109/L; 64.6 ± 8.1%) and NPC (5.6 ± 2.0 × 109/L; 48.5 ± 10.7%), p < 0.05. Conclusion: Eclampsia was associated with significantly depressed CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte, and increased percentage differential neutrophil counts.
Microwave Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal and Antimicrobial Studies of Some Ni(II) and Cu(II) Schiff Base Complexes  [PDF]
A. P. Mishra, Neha Sharma, Rajendra K. Jain
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2013.22007
Abstract:

Schiff bases have been synthesized by condensing nicotinamide with methyl isobutyl ketone (MKN) and 2-hydroxy acetophenone (HAN). Metal complexes have been prepared by interacting these Schiff bases with metal ions viz. Ni(II), Cu(II) 1:2 (metal:ligand) ratio. These compounds have been synthesized by conventional as well as microwave methods and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, FAB-mass, ESR, molar conductance, and thermal analysis. FAB mass and thermal data show degradation pattern of the complexes. The complexes are colored and stable in air at room temperature. The structure of the ligands were elucidated by spectral studies which indicate the presence of two or three coordinating groups in ligands which may be oxygen atom of the phenolic -OH group, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine (C=N) group and the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group. The thermal behavior of metal complexes shows that the hydrated complexes loses water molecules of hydration in the first step; followed by decomposition of ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The solid state electrical conductivity of the metal complexes has also been measured. Solid state electrical conductivity studies reflect semiconducting nature of the complexes. The Schiff bases and metal complexes show good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and fungi Aspergillus nigerand Candida albicans. The antimicrobial results also indicate that the metal complexes are better antimicrobial agents as compared to the Schiff bases.

Microwave synthesis and spectral, thermal and antimicrobial activities of some novel transition metal complexes with tridentate Schiff base ligands
Jain Rajendra,Mishra Anand P.
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/jsc111001023j
Abstract: Some novel Schiff base metal complexes of Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) derived from 2-[(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]pyridin-3-ol (BSAP) and {5-chloro-2-[(2-hydroxynaphthylidene)amino]phenyl}-phenylmethanone (HNAC) were synthesized by conventional as well as microwave methods. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FAB-mass, molar conductance, electronic spectra, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, thermal, cyclic voltammetry, electrical conductivity and XRD analyses. Analytical data revealed that all the complexes exhibited 1:1 (metal:ligand) ratio with coordination number 4 or 6. IR data showed that the ligand coordinates with the metal ions in a tridentate manner. FAB-mass and thermal data showed degradation pattern of the complexes. The thermal behaviour of metal complexes showed that the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration in the first step; followed by decomposition of ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The crystal system, lattice parameter, unit cell volume and number of molecules in unit cell in the lattice of complexes were determined by XRD analysis. XRD patterns indicate crystalline nature for the complexes. The solid state electrical conductivity of the metal complexes was also measured. Solid state electrical conductivity studies reflect semiconducting nature of the complexes. The Schiff base and metal complexes displayed a good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial results also indicate that the metal complexes displayed better antimicrobial activity as compared to the Schiff bases.
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