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On Semi π-Regular Local Ring  [PDF]
Zubayda M. Ibraheem, Raghad A. Mustafa, Maha F. Khalf
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104788
Abstract:
A ring R is said to be a right (left) semi π-regular local ring if and only if for all a in R, either a or (1-a) is a right (left) semi π-regular element. The purpose of this paper is to give some characterization and properties of semi π-regular local rings, and to study the relation between semi π-regular local rings and local rings. From the main results of this work: 1) Let R be a semi π-regular reduced ring. Then the idempotent associated element is unique. 2) Let R be a ring. Then R is a right semi π-regular local ring if and only if either r(an) or r((1-a)n) is direct summand for all aR and nZ . If R is a local ring with r(anr(a) for all aR and nZ , then R is a right semi π-regular local ring.
Robust Stability of a Class of Unstable Systems under Mixed Uncertainty
Rami A. Maher,Raghad Samir
Journal of Control Science and Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/970962
Abstract: For unstable plants, the priority of control goes to the stability of synthesis, which means to find a stabilizer controller. In the case where the plant is subjected to structured and unstructured uncertainties, the stability problem becomes more crucial. The problem was solved by a conservative method based on generalized Kharitonov's theorem and Nevanlinna-Pick's interpolation (NPI) technique. This paper introduces a proposed straightforward numerical approach for loop shaping the unstructured additive or multiplicative maximum uncertainty magnitudes. The approach finds controllers, which are capable of stabilizing the interval system while the uncertainty box is enlarged to its maximum dimensions. To illustrate, we introduce some numerical examples. 1. Introduction Since most of the theories in control engineering are stated for linear plant modeling, one may wonder whether such modeling is perfectly free from uncertainty. In fact, uncertainty in linear plant models may have several origins. Linearization or order reduction is not the only the reasons but also the measurement errors and the deviation of the operating point. Moreover, at high frequencies, both parameters and structure may change dramatically; uncertainty may exceed 100% at some frequency. Despite the existences of all details, one usually works with a simple law order nominal model and quantities of uncertainty [1]. Since the appearing of the surprisingly simple solution of robust stability with respect to parameter uncertainty given by Kharitonov [2], the initial results have been extended in many directions. One of the earliest most important results is the generalization developed by Chapellat and Bhattacharyya [3]. The applications of the Kharitonov theory to the analysis and synthesis of control systems have been introduced in many literatures such as [4–8]. Uncertainty may be grouped as structured (parametric) and unstructured. The former is formulated by bounding each uncertain parameter within some region , while the latter is more difficult to quantify, and it appears that the frequency domain is well suited for this class. This leads to complex perturbations, which are usually normalized such that the norm is less than one. Additive and multiplicative perturbations are the two classes of unstructured uncertainty usually considered in control systems. In these classes, the and define the nominal transfer function of the plant and the perturbed transfer function, respectively. The transfer function will be in the multiplicative class , if has the same number of unstable poles
Prevalence of Two Gastrointestinal Parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia within Samarra City, Iraq  [PDF]
Ayoub A. Bazzaz, Ouhood M. Shakir, Raghad H. Alabbasy
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.811029
Abstract: The prevalence of two gastrointestinal parasites the Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia parasites and their impact on some blood parameters, i.e. packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb%) and total protein (TP) of a total 780 patients (children and adults) admitted to Samarra General Hospital were assessed. Samples of fresh feces were collected in normal physiological saline and examined using Olympic microscopes. The frequency of the parasite E. histolytica was 12.8% (46.3% male and 53.6% female). The highest frequency of infection of E. histolytica (13.8%) was found at age group (1 - 5 years old) followed by <1 year old children while the lowest (7.4%) was at ages (>41 years old). The highest rate of infection (33.9%) was found in September and the lowest (2.2%) in January. Similarly, the general infection frequency of the parasite G. lamblia was 3.9% with the highest rate at ages 1 - 20 years old and the lowest rate was 7.3% for >50 years old. The monthly, highest rate of infection (5.2%) was in August and least (2.2%) in January (2.2%). The frequency of total protein (TPD) in the blood relevant to the presence of parasite E. histolytica and G. lamblia was 4.6% and 1%, respectively. It is concluded that the above two parasites are the most common gastrointestinal parasite in Iraq whose pathogenesis to be which is likely to escalate during the summer seasons and at low hygienic services environment. There has been an irrelev
Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq
Asma A Al-Jawadi, Zina WA Al-Mola, Raghad A Al-Jomard
BMC Research Notes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-47
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form.Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE? Blood Lead Testing System and Kits.A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001). By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level <11 gm/dl. Regarding cord blood lead: coffee consumption and high maternal blood lead were significant risk predictors. Milk and milk products consumption, calcium intake and low level of physical activity were significantly operational in the prevention of high maternal blood lead levels. Iron intake and also low level of physical activity were shown as significant protective variables against high cord blood lead values.Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.There are numbers of studies published in developing countries that have evaluated maternal influences on umbilical blood lead levels (UBLLs) [1-4]. In Iraq very few studies were published covering population with assumed low exposure such as female in childbearing age and children [5,6]. The present study is the first report of a cross-sectional analysis of lead in maternal and newborn blood at the time of delivery in Mosul or probably in Iraq. It aims to determine the presence of correlation between maternal and umbilical BLLs among pregnant women attending Mosul maternity hospitals for delivery, and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels.Official permission was obtained from Ninevah Health Office and maternity hospita
Analgesic and Toxicity Studies of Aminoacetylenic Isoindoline-1,3-dione Derivatives
Raghad Shakir,Zuhair A. Muhi-eldeen,Khalid Z. Matalka,Nidal A. Qinna
ISRN Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/657472
Abstract:
Analgesic and Toxicity Studies of Aminoacetylenic Isoindoline-1,3-dione Derivatives
Raghad Shakir,Zuhair A. Muhi-eldeen,Khalid Z. Matalka,Nidal A. Qinna
ISRN Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/657472
Abstract: We have developed a series of aminoacetylenic isoindoline-1,3-dione compounds and showed their anti-inflammatory activities by reducing carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and modulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study and due to efficacy reasons, we are exploring only two of these compounds, namely, ZM4 and ZM5, to reveal their analgesic activity and toxicity. Following oral administration, both compounds were effective in reducing significantly ( –0.001) acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, hot plate latency test, and formalin-induced paw licking time as antinociceptive indicators in mice and rats, respectively. Regarding the toxicity, the acute (20, 50, and 150?mg/kg) and repeated oral administration (10, 20, and 50?mg/kg) of these compounds for ten days did not produce any mortality and the compounds were considered well tolerated. However, repeated oral administration of 50?mg/kg of both compounds induced erythropoiesis by means of increasing significantly red blood cells, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Moreover, these compounds did not induce gastric lesions in the stomach of experimental animals at the doses that exhibited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity compared to indomethacin as a positive control. The results indicate that ZM4 and ZM5 possess potential analgesic activity while being preliminarily safe and have minimal ulcerogenic activity. 1. Introduction Cyclooxygenase (COX) plays an important role in the production of prostaglandins and the release of chemical pain mediators; therefore, inhibiting COX will reduce the painful response resulting from the prostaglandin cascade [1]. As inhibitors of COX enzyme, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used to treat inflammation, mild-to-moderate pain, and fever. There are at least three isoforms of the COX enzyme: COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 [2, 3]. COX-1 is expressed constitutively throughout the body and is important in maintaining vital functions such as glomerular filtration rate, platelet function, and gastric mucosal protection. COX-2, on the other hand, is undetectable in most normal functioning tissues [4]. However, the expression of COX-2 is induced as a response of inflammation whereas COX-3 was observed to be abundant in the cerebral cortex [2, 3]. All NSAIDs have a similar effect on reducing pain [5, 6]. These include the selective NSAID or COX-2 inhibitor, Celecoxib, nonselective NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen and aspirin, and partially selective NSAIDs, such as meloxicam, nabumetone, and etodolac. Nevertheless,
An Approach to Teaching Aesthetics: Linking Mental and Manual Skills
Nabeel Elhady and Raghad Mofeed
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2010,
Abstract:
Influence of fungicides and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and nutrient balance of soybean by used DRIS equation  [PDF]
Dalshad A. Darwesh, Kadija K. Mustafa
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35089
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of mycorrhiza, fungicides in difference concentration and there combination on growth and nutrients balance index of soya bean. Tow AM treatments including with and with out mycorrhiza and tow fungicides (parasmid and ant-arcol) each of them including four concentration (0.0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Kg·donum-1) were tested in factorial completely randomized design in the three replication. The results indicates that the higher value of total dry matter weight was recorded from combination treatment (F1M1C1) which attained 11.09 gm·pot-1 ,while the lower value 2.25 gm·pot-1 was produced by combination treatment (F2M2C3) ,however the same combination treatments was showed that the nitrogen ,phosphorus ,magnesium and iron in the shoot tissues in the mycorrhizal plant with lower concentration of fungicides were significantly greater (P < 0.01) compared to control and higher concentration treatments. The higher concentration of the above mentioned nutrients (28.33, 8.36, 6.34 mg·g-1, 251.00 mg·K-1) was recorded. The result of nutrient index and nutrient balance index revealed that the lower NBI (56.18) was recorded in combination treatments (F1M1C1), while the higher NBI (2033.81) was produced from combination treatments (F2M2C3), moreover the results shows significant negative correlation ship between NBI and total dry matter weight (r = -0.63*) .
Using Harmonic Mean to Solve Multi-Objective Linear Programming Problems  [PDF]
Nejmaddin A. Sulaiman, Rebaz B. Mustafa
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.61004
Abstract:

In this paper, we have suggested a new technique to transform multi-objective linear programming problem (MOLPP) to the single objective linear programming problem by using Harmonic mean for values of function and an algorithm is suggested for its solution, the computer application of algorithm has been demonstrated by solving some numerical examples. We have used some other techniques, such as (sen, arithmetic mean, median) to solve the same problems, the results in Table 3 indicate that the new technique in general is promising.

Modification of productive performance and physiological aspects of broilers on the addition of a mixture of cumin and turmeric to the diet
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres) day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of cumin and turmeric mixture at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the same time the cumin and turmeric mixture of 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC, WBC, and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of mixture containing cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) as feed additive at levels 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
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