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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 334944 matches for " Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos "
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Molecular Evidence for the Inverse Comorbidity between Central Nervous System Disorders and Cancers Detected by Transcriptomic Meta-analyses
Kristina Ibá?ez equal contributor,César Boullosa equal contributor,Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos,Ana?s Baudot ,Alfonso Valencia
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004173
Abstract: There is epidemiological evidence that patients with certain Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders have a lower than expected probability of developing some types of Cancer. We tested here the hypothesis that this inverse comorbidity is driven by molecular processes common to CNS disorders and Cancers, and that are deregulated in opposite directions. We conducted transcriptomic meta-analyses of three CNS disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia) and three Cancer types (Lung, Prostate, Colorectal) previously described with inverse comorbidities. A significant overlap was observed between the genes upregulated in CNS disorders and downregulated in Cancers, as well as between the genes downregulated in CNS disorders and upregulated in Cancers. We also observed expression deregulations in opposite directions at the level of pathways. Our analysis points to specific genes and pathways, the upregulation of which could increase the incidence of CNS disorders and simultaneously lower the risk of developing Cancer, while the downregulation of another set of genes and pathways could contribute to a decrease in the incidence of CNS disorders while increasing the Cancer risk. These results reinforce the previously proposed involvement of the PIN1 gene, Wnt and P53 pathways, and reveal potential new candidates, in particular related with protein degradation processes.
The switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of cognitive deficits. A pilot study in individuals with schizophrenia
Gabriel Selva-Vera, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, José Salazar-Fraile, José Sánchez-Moreno, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Patricia Correa, Eduard Vieta, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BMC Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-10-47
Abstract: In this naturalistic study, we used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests to assess a sample of schizophrenia patients taking either conventional (n = 13) or novel antipsychotics (n = 26) at baseline and at two years after.Continuous antipsychotic treatment regardless of class was associated with improvement on verbal fluency, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory. Patients taking atypical antipsychotics did not show greater cognitive enhancement over two years than patients taking conventional antipsychotics.Although long-term antipsychotic treatment slightly improved cognitive function, the switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of these cognitive deficits.Cognitive disturbances are a core feature of schizophrenia and have been extensively studied in recent years [1]. Cognitive impairment is present before the onset of the illness [2] and is also found in healthy relatives of patients, although to a lesser degree [3]. In addition, this feature is not exclusively secondary to psychiatric symptoms or medication [4]. Cognitive impairment is a better predictor of future functional outcomes compared with positive symptoms [5-7].The positive action of conventional antipsychotics drugs (APDs) on cognition is considered mild or moderate [8] and is limited to certain cognitive domains such as sustained attention [9,10].Regarding novel antipsychotics, this supposed cognitive enhancement would be mediated by their capability to raise the level of dopamine and acetylcholine in prefrontal regions [11]. However, their different affinity for brain receptors may result in different procognitive profiles of each class of antipsychotics. Many studies support a cognitive enhancement of the different atypical antipsychotics: quetiapine and olanzapine [12], quetiapine and risperidone [13], ziprasidone and olanzapine [14]; olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone [15], risperidone and quetiap
Clinical usefulness of the screen for cognitive impairment in psychiatry (SCIP-S) scale in patients with type I bipolar disorder
Georgina Guilera, Oscar Pino, Juana Gómez-Benito, J Emilio Rojo, Eduard Vieta, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Nuria Segarra, Anabel Martínez-Arán, Manuel Franco, Manuel J Cuesta, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Miguel Bernardo, Scot E Purdon, Teresa Díez, Javier Rejas, the Spanish Working Group in Cognitive Function
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-28
Abstract: After short training, psychiatrists at 40 outpatient clinics administered the SCIP three times over two weeks to a total of 76 consecutive type I BD admissions. Experienced psychologists also administered a comprehensive battery of standard neuropsychological instruments to clinical sample and 45 healthy control subjects.Feasibility was supported by a brief administration time (approximately 15 minutes) and minimal scoring errors. The reliability of the SCIP was confirmed by good equivalence of forms, acceptable stability (ICC range 0.59 to 0.87) and adequate internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha of 0.74). Construct validity was granted by extraction of a single factor (accounting 52% of the variance), acceptable correlations with conventional neuropsychological instruments, and a clear differentiation between bipolar I and normal samples. Efficiency was also provided by the adequate sensitivity and specificity.The sample size is not very large. The SCIP and the neurocognitive battery do not cover all potentially relevant cognitive domains. Also, sensitivity to change remains unexplored.With minimal training, physicians obtained a reliable and valid estimate of cognitive impairment in approximately 15 minutes from an application of the SCIP to type I BD patients.Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders are relevant to cerebral pathogenesis and prognosis, but they are often neglected in routine clinical practice. The deficits persist beyond the resolution of acute symptoms [1-3] and show familial co-segregation [4] consistent with expectations for a genetically based endophenotypic trait [5]. The cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder are also directly related to functional status or psychosocial outcomes [6,7], and the severity of the cognitive impairment at initiation of therapeutic intervention can be a powerful predictor of functional recovery one year later [8]. Similar observations in schizophrenia [9] prompted the National Institutes of Health initiative for
Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up
Salazar-Fraile,J.; Balanzá-Martínez,V.; Selva-Vera,G.; Martínez-Aran,A.; Sánchez-Moreno,J.; Rubio,C.; Vieta,E.; Gómez-Beneyto,M.; Tabarés-Seisdedos,R.;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632009000300007
Abstract: background: we examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. methods: one hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process. in addition to univariate analyses, factor analyses, ordinal logistic regression, and multiple linear regressions were used. a general score was also calculated. results: no differences were found between schizophrenic and bipolar patients in the deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning ability and executive attention. schizophrenic patients had greater persistent cognitive deficit because of a common pathogenic factor in the verbal memory dimension than bipolar patients. motor speed predicted the specific deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning, executive attention and the general deficit of both bipolar i and schizophrenic patients. bipolar patients suffered a lesser specific deficit in the verbal memory dimension than schizophrenic patients did, this domain not being predicted by motor speed. motor speed predicted the generalized deficit and the specific dimensions in which schizophrenic and bipolar patients showed no differences. conclusions: these results suggest the presence of general and specific stable cognitive deficits because of a common pathogenic factor related to psychomotor slowness. motor speed seems to be suitable endophenocognitype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Aproximación psicopatológica a El Quijote (según la nosología psiquiátrica actual)
Corral Márquez,Rosana; Tabarés Seisdedos,Rafael;
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 2003, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-57352003000100003
Abstract: psychopathology of don quixote is analysed and previous studies about the character are reviewed, from the medical as from the literary point of view. seen from the current nososlogy perspective, don quixote would fullfil criteria for a delusional disorder and this is argumented on the base of the delusion?s genesis, synthomatology and delusion?s formal treats. furthermore, the diagnose of shared psychotic disorder is proposed for the main characters (don quixote and sancho).
Aproximación psicopatológica a El Quijote (según la nosología psiquiátrica actual).
Rosana Corral Márquez,Rafael Tabarés Seisdedos
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 2003,
Abstract: Se analiza la psicopatología de Don Quijote y se revisan los estudios previos sobre el personaje, tanto desde la perspectiva médica como la literaria. Considerando el enfoque de la nosología psiquiátrica actual, Don Quijote cumpliría criterios para un Trastorno Delirante y esto se argumenta en base a la génesis del delirio, la sintomatología y los rasgos formales del delirio. Asimismo, se propone el diagnóstico de Trastorno Psicótico Compartido para la pareja protagonista (Don Quijote y Sancho)
A Rapid Efficient Method for DNA Isolation from Plants with High Levels of Secondary Metabolites
A. Dehestani,S.K. Kazemi Tabar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This research was designated to optimize a rapid, inexpensive method to isolate desirable DNA from plants with high concentrations of secondary products. DNA extraction procedures of plants with high levels of secondary metabolites e.g., Tea (Camellia sinensis) Pokeweed (Phytolacca dodecandra), Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and most of medicinal plants is so complicated due to polyphenolics, tanins, alkaloids and other metabolites that makes it difficult to obtain high quality DNA with good maintenance time. To overcome this problem, we designed a simple but efficient method. In this method, an extraction buffer is primarily used to reduce the secondary metabolite levels followed by a separate lysis buffer comprising of a sarcosyl detergent (N-lauryl sarcosine sodium salt), 2 different reducing agents and higher concentrations of chelating agents. CTAB/NaCl precipitation of polysaccharides and elimination of proteins through chloroform:isoamyl alcohol extraction resulted a more pure DNA. Presented method consists of few steps. Furthermore, protein and polysaccharide contamination was noticeably reduced. This method does not require expensive reagents and modern laboratory equipments and it is possible to isolate several DNA samples per day in a general biology lab. DNA derived using this method was tested electrophoretically and then was examined spectrophotometrically: A260/280 (protein contamination) and A260/230 (Polyphenol and polysaccharide residuals). Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using different RAPD primers and EcoRI, BamHI and HindIII were used for restriction enzyme reactions at different digestion conditions. Results indicated that DNA produced in this method is desirable for must of genetic assays and because polyphenolic compounds were removed or neutralized, maintenance time of DNA samples increased.
A Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory Solution For Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics In Presence of The Alf'ven Effect
M. R. Rahimi Tabar,S. Rouhani
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i1997-00170-7
Abstract: When Alf`ven effect is peresent in magnetohydrodynamics one is naturally lead to consider conformal field theories, which have logarithmic terms in their correlation functions. We discuss the implications of such logarithmic terms and find a unique conformal field theory with centeral charge $c=-\frac{209}{7}$, within the border of the minimal series, which satisfies all the constraints. The energy espectrum is found to be \newline $E(k)\sim k^{-\frac{13}{7}} \log{k}$.
Logarithmic Correlation Functions in Two Dimensional Turbulence
M. R. Rahimi Tabar,S. Rouhani
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9601(96)00809-2
Abstract: We consider the correlation functions of two-dimensional turbulence in the presence and absence of a three-dimensional perturbation, by means of conformal field theory. In the persence of three dimensional perturbation, we show that in the strong coupling limit of a small scale random force, there is some logarithmic factor in the correlation functions of velocity stream functions. We show that the logarithmic conformal field theory $c_{8,1}$ describes the 2D- turbulence both in the absence and the presence of the perturbation. We obtain the following energy spectrum $E(k) \sim k^{-5.125 } \ln(k )$ for perturbed 2D - turbulence and $E(k) \sim k^{-5 } \ln(k )$ for unperturbed turbulence. Recent numerical simulation and experimental results confirm our prediction.
The Alf'ven Effect and Conformal Field Theory
M. R. Rahimi Tabar,S. Rouhani
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: Noting that two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics can be modeled by conformal field theory, we argue that when the Alf'ven effect is also taken into account one is naturally lead to consider conformal field theories, which have logarithmic terms in their correlation functions. We discuss the implications of such logarithmic terms in the context of magnetohydrodynamics, and derive a relationship between conformal dimensions of the velocity stream function, the magnetic flux function and the Reynolds number.
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