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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15511 matches for " Rafael Simó "
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Título da página electrónica: Escola de Cultura de Paz
Mónica Rafael Sim?es
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012,
Abstract: A Escola de Cultura de Paz foi criada em 1999, dando seguimento à Cátedra UNESCO sobre Paz e Direitos Humanos da Universidade Autónoma de Barcelona, com o objectivo de trabalhar para uma cultura de paz, promovendo a investiga o e forma o em áreas relacionadas com preven o e análise de conflitos, processos de paz, desarmamento, direitos humanos e educa o para a paz. Esta página é coordenada por Vicen Fisas e produzida pela sua equipa de jovens investigadores da Universidade Autónoma de B...
Título da página electrónica: Fondation Hirondelle
Mónica Rafael Sim?es
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012,
Abstract: A Funda o Hirondelle, criada em 1995, é a única organiza o n o governamental especializada de jornalistas que cria meios de comunica o social independentes e comprometidos com a causa democrática em zonas de crises ou de pós-conflito, com o objectivo de apoiar esfor os de paz e de promover os direitos humanos. Uma informa o profissional, confiável e imparcial constitui um dos direitos humanos fundamentais e desempenha um papel central ou mesmo determinante em situa es de conflito. Fornec...
Título da página electrónica: Transcend – A Peace and Development Organisation for Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means
Mónica Rafael Sim?es
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012,
Abstract: Transcend é uma organiza o de media o de conflitos que tem como objectivo colocar a experiência e o conhecimento ao servi o das práticas de transforma o de conflitos, constru o da paz e desenvolvimento. Fundada em 1993 por Johan Galtung – seu director e um dos pais fundadores dos estudos para a paz –, esta organiza o “virtual” baseia-se no trabalho e comunica o em rede e fundamenta-se em 4 pilares principais: educa o/forma o, dissemina o, pesquisa e ac o. A ac o para a tentativa d...
Usefulness of the Vitreous Fluid Analysis in the Translational Research of Diabetic Retinopathy
Olga Simó-Servat,Cristina Hernández,Rafael Simó
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/872978
Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major cause of acquired blindness in working-age adults. Current treatments for DR (laser photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, and vitreo-retinal surgery) are applicable only at advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments for the early stages of the disease are needed. Vitreous fluid obtained from diabetic patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery is currently used to explore the events that are taking place in the retina for clinical research. However, several confounding factors such as vitreous haemorrhage and concentration of vitreous proteins should be considered in the analysis of the results. In this paper we will focus on the vitreous fluid as a tool for exploring the mediators of DR and in particular the molecules related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, their role in the pathogenesis of DR will be discussed. The usefulness of new technologies such as flow cytometry and proteomics in identifying new candidates involved in the inflammatory process that occurs in DR will be overviewed. Finally, a more personalized treatment based on vitreous fluid analysis aiming to reduce the burden associated with DR is suggested. 1. Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness and vision loss among adults aged under 40 years in the developed world. Population-based studies suggest that about one-third of the diabetic population have signs of DR and approximately one-tenth have vision-threatening stages of retinopathy such as diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) [1–3]. DR is associated with considerable costs related to laser coagulation therapy, vitrectomy in severe cases, and eventually costs for social support when useful vision has deteriorated completely [4]. In this regard, it has been reported that the consumption of health care resources is almost double in type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications than in patients without it [5]. Notably, average healthcare costs increase considerably with the severity of DR, which suggests that preventing the progression of DR may alleviate the economic burden related to this complication of diabetes [6]. Current treatments for DR (laser photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, and vitreo-retinal surgery) are applicable only at advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse
Iron Overload in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Cause or a Consequence of Impaired Mechanisms?
Andreea Ciudin,Cristina Hernández,Rafael Simó
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/714108
Abstract: Iron is an essential ion for life, playing a central role in many metabolic processes. The most important property of free iron is its capacity to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, but at same time this make it highly pro-oxidant molecule. In this regard, iron is able to generate powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS). For this reason, careful control on iron availability is central to the maintenance of normal cell function in the retina. In the diabetic eye there is an impairment of iron homeostasis, thus leading to iron overload. The mechanisms involved in this process include: (1) Destruction of heme molecules induced by hyperglycemia (2) Intraretinal and vitreal hemorrhages (3) Overexpression of the renin-angiotensin system. The main consequences of iron overload are the following: (1) Retinal neurodegeneration due to the increase of oxidative stress (2) Increase of AGE-RAGE binding (3) Defective phagocytosis of retinal pigment epithelium, which generates the accumulation of autoantigens and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies addressed to explore not only the role of iron in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but also to design novel therapeutic strategies based on the regulation of iron homeostasis are needed.
Harry Potter: una comprensión desde lo simbólico
Simón Pérez,José Rafael;
Letras , 2009,
Abstract: the harry potter saga has been fortunate to gather a huge legion of readers around the world. for this reason, such work has been termed a sociological phenomenon of recent times. on the basis of such impact, the present research is proposed. its aim is to analyze some symbols from the catholic religion conveyed in this series, which has been accused by some groups of showing and spreading occultist elements. also, part of the story of harry potter and the deathly hallows, the last book, is approached as well as some aspects that establish distinctions between this book and the previous stories. as a result, it can be mentioned that the christian family, represented by joseph, mary and jesus, has its referents in the series. there one finds james potter and lily evans, parents of the savior of the magical world: harry. besides that, there is the serpent, symbol of the evil and the sinful, present in catholic religion as well as in the saga. there is also a messianic dimension that connects jesus christ and harry as anointed and saviors. but such elements are not the only connections between christian symbology and the parallel universe created by rowling: the fight of good against evil and resurrection could be approached in future research works.
VIMANG, un potencial protector de la peroxidación lipídica en lipoproteínas de baja densidad
Loy,Sulay; Simón,Rafael; Delgado,René;
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2002,
Abstract: an investigation was carried out to know if vimang, an extract from the cortex of the stem of mangifera indica l, protects low density lipoproteins from the in vitro oxidation mediated by ions of cu++ . to this end, low density lipoproteins obtained by ultracentrifugation from blood samples of sound volunteers, were oxidized by incubation with cus04 at 37 °c during 3 hours in the presence of different doses of vimang (0.0001-0.1 % w/v), as a model to investigate the antioxidant properties of this product. the lipid peroxidation was measured as reactive substances to tiobarbituric acid, the assayed doses of vimang showed a potent antioxidant action. only the lowest dose allowed a discrete formation of lipid peroxides in low density lipoproteins after 3 hours of incubation on comparing them with the low density lipoproteins controls. the final result is an evidence of the possible use of vimang as an antioxidant in the prevention or delay of atherosclerosis.
VIMANG, un potencial protector de la peroxidación lipídica en lipoproteínas de baja densidad
Sulay Loy,Rafael Simón,René Delgado
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2002,
Abstract: Se investigó si el VIMANG, un extracto de la corteza del tallo de la Mangifera indica L, protege a las lipoproteínas de baja densidad de la oxidación in vitro mediada por iones de Cu++. Para esto las lipoproteínas de baja densidad obtenidas por ultracentrifugación a partir de muestras de sangre de voluntarios sanos, fueron oxidadas por incubación con CuSO4, a 37 °C durante 3 h, en presencia de diferentes dosis de VIMANG (0,0001-0,1 % w/v), como un modelo para investigar las propiedades antioxidantes de este producto. La peroxidación lipídica fue medida como sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. Las dosis de VIMANG ensayadas mostraron una acción antioxidante potente. Solo la dosis menor permitió una discreta formación de peróxidos lipídicos en las lipoproteínas de baja densidad al cabo de las 3 h de incubación, al compararse con las lipoproteínas de baja densidad controles. El resultado obtenido constituye una evidencia del posible uso del VIMANG como antioxidante en la prevención o retardo de la aterosclerosis. An investigation was carried out to know if Vimang, an extract from the cortex of the stem of Mangifera indica L, protects low density lipoproteins from the in vitro oxidation mediated by ions of Cu++ . To this end, low density lipoproteins obtained by ultracentrifugation from blood samples of sound volunteers, were oxidized by incubation with CuS04 at 37 °C during 3 hours in the presence of different doses of Vimang (0.0001-0.1 % w/v), as a model to investigate the antioxidant properties of this product. The lipid peroxidation was measured as reactive substances to tiobarbituric acid, The assayed doses of Vimang showed a potent antioxidant action. Only the lowest dose allowed a discrete formation of lipid peroxides in low density lipoproteins after 3 hours of incubation on comparing them with the low density lipoproteins controls. The final result is an evidence of the possible use of Vimang as an antioxidant in the prevention or delay of atherosclerosis.
Molecular Implications of the PPARs in the Diabetic Eye
Andreea Ciudin,Cristina Hernández,Rafael Simó
PPAR Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/686525
Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains as the leading cause of blindness among working age individuals in developed countries. Current treatments for DR (laser photocoagulation, intravitreal corticosteroids, intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, and vitreoretinal surgery) are applicable only at advanced stages of the disease and are associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments for the early stages of the disease are needed. Emerging evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors (PPARs) agonists (in particular PPARα) are useful for the treatment of DR. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are far from being elucidated. This paper mainly focuses on PPARs expression in the diabetic eye, its molecular implications, and the effect of PPAR agonists as a new approach for the treatment of DR. The availability of this new strategy will not only be beneficial in treating DR but may also result in a shift towards treating earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy, thus easing the burden of this devastating disease (Cheung et al. (2010)). 1. Introduction Diabetic retinopathy is the most common complication of diabetes, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) remains the leading cause of blindness among working-age individuals in developed countries [1]. Diabetic macular edema (DME), another important event that occurs in diabetic retinopathy, is more frequent in type 2 than type 1 diabetes [2]. Although PDR is the most common sight-threatening lesion in type 1 diabetes, DME is the primary cause of poor visual acuity in type 2 diabetes. Because of the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, DME is the main cause of visual impairment for diabetic patients. In addition, DME is almost invariably present when PDR is detected in type 2 diabetes [3]. Despite heterogeneity in patient selection criteria, country and selection period, the prevalence of patients with DR in Western countries is relatively similar, ranging from 21.9 to 36.8% [4]. Population-based studies suggest that about one-third of the diabetic population have signs of DR and one-tenth have vision-threatening states of retinopathy such as diabetic maculae edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) [5, 6]. Neovascularization caused by severe hypoxia is the hallmark of PDR, whereas vascular leakage caused by the breakdown of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) is the main event involved in the pathogenesis of DME. Healthcare costs for patients with DR are almost double than that of patients without it and they increase considerably with the
Iron Overload in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Cause or a Consequence of Impaired Mechanisms?
Andreea Ciudin,Cristina Hernández,Rafael Simó
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/714108
Abstract: Iron is an essential ion for life, playing a central role in many metabolic processes. The most important property of free iron is its capacity to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, but at same time this make it highly pro-oxidant molecule. In this regard, iron is able to generate powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS). For this reason, careful control on iron availability is central to the maintenance of normal cell function in the retina. In the diabetic eye there is an impairment of iron homeostasis, thus leading to iron overload. The mechanisms involved in this process include: (1) Destruction of heme molecules induced by hyperglycemia (2) Intraretinal and vitreal hemorrhages (3) Overexpression of the renin-angiotensin system. The main consequences of iron overload are the following: (1) Retinal neurodegeneration due to the increase of oxidative stress (2) Increase of AGE-RAGE binding (3) Defective phagocytosis of retinal pigment epithelium, which generates the accumulation of autoantigens and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies addressed to explore not only the role of iron in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but also to design novel therapeutic strategies based on the regulation of iron homeostasis are needed. 1. Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working-age individuals in developed countries [1]. DR classically has been considered as a microcirculatory disease of the retina due to the deletereous metabolic effects of hyperglycemia per se and the metabolic pathways triggered by hyperglycemia on retinal capillaries [2]. In recent years, evidence has emerged showing that retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in DR and is already present before any microcirculatory abnormalities can be detected in ophthalmoscopic examination [3–7]. However, this subject is still controversial, since not all of the studies evidence retinal neurodegeneration in the diabetic retina [8]. Alterations contributing to oxidative stress and downregulation of antioxidative enzymes play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR [9, 10]. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the crucial contributors to the pathogenesis of DR and it is highly interrelated with other biochemical imbalances (i.e., increase in the polyol, PKC, hexosamine, and advanced glycation end-products [AGEs] pathways), that lead to structural and functional changes such as accelerated loss of capillary cells in the retinal microvasculature, increased vascular permeability, and increased VEGF formation [9–13]. Iron is an
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