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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 606959 matches for " Rafael García de Sola "
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Stability of Synchronization Clusters and Seizurability in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Agostina Palmigiano, Jesús Pastor, Rafael García de Sola, Guillermo J. Ortega
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041799
Abstract: Purpose Identification of critical areas in presurgical evaluations of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy is the most important step prior to resection. According to the “epileptic focus model”, localization of seizure onset zones is the main task to be accomplished. Nevertheless, a significant minority of epileptic patients continue to experience seizures after surgery (even when the focus is correctly located), an observation that is difficult to explain under this approach. However, if attention is shifted from a specific cortical location toward the network properties themselves, then the epileptic network model does allow us to explain unsuccessful surgical outcomes. Methods The intraoperative electrocorticography records of 20 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were analyzed in search of interictal synchronization clusters. Synchronization was analyzed, and the stability of highly synchronized areas was quantified. Surrogate data were constructed and used to statistically validate the results. Our results show the existence of highly localized and stable synchronization areas in both the lateral and the mesial areas of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to the clinical seizures. Synchronization areas seem to play a central role in the capacity of the epileptic network to generate clinical seizures. Resection of stable synchronization areas is associated with elimination of seizures; nonresection of synchronization clusters is associated with the persistence of seizures after surgery. Discussion We suggest that synchronization clusters and their stability play a central role in the epileptic network, favoring seizure onset and propagation. We further speculate that the stability distribution of these synchronization areas would differentiate normal from pathologic cases.
The Influence of Genetic and Environmental Factors among MDMA Users in Cognitive Performance
Elisabet Cuyàs,Antonio Verdejo-García,Ana Beatriz Fagundo,Olha Khymenets,Joan Rodríguez,Aida Cuenca,Susana de Sola Llopis,Klaus Langohr,Jordi Pe?a-Casanova,Marta Torrens,Rocío Martín-Santos,Magí Farré,Rafael de la Torre
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027206
Abstract: This study is aimed to clarify the association between MDMA cumulative use and cognitive dysfunction, and the potential role of candidate genetic polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in the cognitive effects of MDMA. Gene polymorphisms related to reduced serotonin function, poor competency of executive control and memory consolidation systems, and high enzymatic activity linked to bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites may contribute to explain variations in the cognitive impact of MDMA across regular users of this drug. Sixty ecstasy polydrug users, 110 cannabis users and 93 non-drug users were assessed using cognitive measures of Verbal Memory (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT), Visual Memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCFT), Semantic Fluency, and Perceptual Attention (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT). Participants were also genotyped for polymorphisms within the 5HTT, 5HTR2A, COMT, CYP2D6, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes using polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan polymerase assays. Lifetime cumulative MDMA use was significantly associated with poorer performance on visuospatial memory and perceptual attention. Heavy MDMA users (>100 tablets lifetime use) interacted with candidate gene polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in cognitive performance between MDMA users and controls. MDMA users carrying COMT val/val and SERT s/s had poorer performance than paired controls on visuospatial attention and memory, and MDMA users with CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers performed worse than controls on semantic fluency. Both MDMA lifetime use and gene-related individual differences influence cognitive dysfunction in ecstasy users.
Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria
Rafael Bustos García de Castro
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly) have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason) is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America), but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France), provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.
Hemangioma cavernoso intraóseo craneal
Carrasco-Moro,R.; García-Navarrete,E.; Navas-García,M.; Adrados de Llano,M.; García de Sola,R.;
Neurocirugía , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-14732009000600006
Abstract: introduction. cavernous haemangiomas are benign tumours that rarely affect the skull. a correct suspicion diagnosis is seldom obtained when typical radiological signs are lacking. in this way a definite diagnosis is only obtained after a surgical procedure in most cases. case report. a 52-year-old female presented a painless, slow-growing tumoration in her right forehead. skull ct showed an osteolytic lesion located within the right frontal bone. on suspicion of a metastatic origin of the lesion, a sistemic research for a primary tumour was performed without significative findings. finally, en bloc resection of the lesion was performed followed by cranioplasty. microscopically, the lesion proved to be a cavernous haemangioma of the frontal bone. conclusion. despite their low frequency, cavernous haemangiomas must be included in the differential diagnosis of slow-growing osteolytic lesions located within the skull. the elective treatment of this tumours includes a complete resection by craniectomy, with safe bony margins.
Peritonitis fúngica en diálisis peritoneal continua ambulatoria: descripción de 10 casos
García Martos,P.; Gil de Sola,F.; Marín,P.; García-Agudo,L.; García-Agudo,R.; Tejuca,F.; Calle,L.;
Nefrología (Madrid) , 2009,
Abstract: background: fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). methods: during a ten-year period (1999-2008), from a total of 175 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing capd, we retrospectively studied 10 cases of fungal peritonitis analyzing the predisposing factors, clinical aspects, etiological agents and treatment. diagnosis was based on elevated capd effluent count (>100/μl) and isolation of fungi on culture. results: fungal peritonitis represented 3.6% of all peritonitis episodes. nine patients had a history of previous bacterial peritonitis and all of them were under antibiotic therapy. other common findings were: age higher than 70 years old (50%) and diabetes mellitus (40%). direct microscopic examination of the peritoneal fluid was useful for the suspicion of fungal infection in six patients (60%). the responsible agents for peritonitis were: candida parapsilosis (4), c. albicans (2), c. tropicalis (1), c. glabrata (1), c. famata (1) and fusarium oxysporum (1). intraperitoneal and oral fluconazole, intravenous and oral voriconazole and intravenous amphotericin b were the antifungal agents used in the treatment. as a result of fungal infection, eight patients were transferred to hemodialysis. one patient died before the diagnosis and three other during the episode of peritonitis. conclusions: patients with previous bacterial peritonitis and antibiotic treatment were at greater risk of developing fungal peritonitis. c. parapsilosis was the most common pathogen. for the successful management of fungal peritonitis besides the antifungal therapy, peritoneal catheter removal was necessary in 60% of patients.
Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates
Daniel Sola,Ana Conde,I?aki García,Elena Gracia-Escosa,Juan J. de Damborenea,Jose I. Pe?a
Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ma6093963
Abstract: In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.
Mindfulness (atención plena): concepto y teoría Mindfulness: Concept and Theory
Agustín Mo?ivas,Gustavo García-Diex,Rafael García-de-Silva
Portularia : Revista de Trabajo Social , 2012, DOI: 10.5218/prts.2012.0009
Abstract: Mindfulness ('atención plena' o consciencia plena') tomó notoriedad en occidente con Kabat Zinn (Universidad de Massachusetts) al aplicarlo al estrés mediante el programa Mindfulness Basado en la Reducción del Estrés (MBSR), en 1978; desde entonces, las investigaciones y campos de aplicación han seguido una progresión geométrica y el MBSR se aplica, contando solo en USA, en más de doscientos cincuenta hospitales. Dada la implantación del trabajo social clínico, en Norteamérica, su aplicación fue inmediata, importándose desde el escenario clínico a los escenarios donde se interviene con individuos, familias, grupos y comunidades. Mindfulness ha dado lugar a múltiples publicaciones bajo el paraguas 'Mindfulness and Social Work'. En este artículo se da cuenta: del cuerpo teórico que conforma "mindfulness", de sus diferentes programas másteres en universidades anglosajonas y europeas -en el contexto de las terapias de tercera generación-, de la investigación actual, incluidas las neurociencias, dada la evidencia científica de los cambios cerebrales que produce su práctica y, finalmente, de su aplicación al Trabajo Social siguiendo los trabajos de Hick y otros. Mindfulness (full attention, full consciousness) became a well-known concept in western countries with Kabat-Zinn (University of Massachusetts), when it was put into practice through his Mindfulness Based on Stress-Reduction program (MBSR) in 1978. Since then, researches and applied fields have followed a geometric progression and the MBSR is being applied in more than two hundred and fifty hospitals only in the USA. Once Clinical Social Work was established in the USA, it was immediately put into practice and transferred from clinical to intervention scenarios with individuals, families, groups and communities. Mindfulness has originated plenty of literature under the general topic "Mindfulness and Social Work". This paper highlights: the theorical framework which makes 'mindfulness' up, its different master programs in Anglo-Saxon and European Universities -in the context of third generation therapeutics-, current researches- including Neurosciences because of the scientific evidence of the brain changes which its practice produces-, and, finally, its application to Social Work, following papers/investigations of Hick and others.
Training for Peace, Justice and Values Education of Students of the Faculty of Law: A Challenge for the University?  [PDF]
Luis Antonio García Hernández, Alfonso Conde Lacárcel, José María Sola Reche
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311015
Abstract: The immediate background of this paper is a research, conducted at the law schools of the Ana-huac, Euro Hispano, Xalapa and Veracruz universities, every in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. With the aim of “Analyzing the axiological universe of the subjects of teaching-learning process, to understand the difficulties and shortcomings in order to help establish conditions that enable them to learn, acquire and prioritize their own values”. We have conducted a research design, quasi-experimental mixed descriptive quantitative and qualitative tools to enrich the collection of information; the qualitative part was collected through review of official documents provided by the universities, quantitative by process by Casares (1995) with its Test Exchange. Some features, resulting from the analysis of data obtained as answers for the valuation process that students exert at different stages of their comprehensive training as persons can be described as highly satisfactory results being the categories in each of its factors reported values above 50 percentage points in the degrees of positive satisfaction, which results in a highly significant evaluative process. Reason why we conclude that both education processes implemented by universities studied and the values assumed by students, are significantly to the role of the educational project raised by the institutions in the curriculum, in its mission and vision and the values assumed for them as distinctive notes of their training plan.
Leishmaniasis cutánea americana en Venezuela, bienio 2008-2009
De Lima,Hector; Borges,Rafael H; Escobar,Jaime; Convit García,Jacinto;
Boletín de Malariología y Salud Ambiental , 2011,
Abstract: the epidemiological report of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in venezuela for the years 2008-2009 is presented. it describes the general epidemiological characteristics, together with some clinical and immunological aspects of its different clinical forms. this was performed by analyzing the database of the leishmaniasis national registry of the instituto de biomedicina. the data was analyzed using epi info 3.5.1 and excel. a total of 4,640 cases of different clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed during 2008-2009, i. e. 2,320 cases per year with an average annual rate of 8.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. it is predominant in males, with a sex ratio of 1.84 for the period under study. cases in all ages, with numerical predominance in the group of 5 to 34 years, mean age were 31.09 and 33.91 years for 2008 and 2009 respectively. regarding the occupation, 22.39% are people of the agricultural sector, followed by students with 20.88% of cases. cases were recorded in all states but nueva esparta, the states with the largest number of cases were lara with 910 (19.61%), miranda 650 (14.01%) and táchira with 488 (10.52%). in terms of clinical forms, clear predominance was observed of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis with 97.84 % (4,540) cases. while localized forms are distributed nationwide, diffuse forms predominate in the lara state (63.64%, 7/11), muco-cutaneous forms predominate in the states of bolivar (21.74%, 10/46), portuguesa (15.22%, 7/46) and miranda, táchira, zulia (10.87%, 5/46 each one) and finally, the intermediate forms in the states of monagas (30.23%, 13/43), miranda (18.60%, 8/43) and táchira (13.95%, 6/43). the clinical and immunological characteristics studied varied according to the different clinical forms. in average, more than 90% (93.39% in 2008 and 89.81% in 2009) of the cases were diagnosed with direct smear. 88.86% of the patients received immunotherapy as first choice treatment. in conclusion, a clinical-epidemiological
Biomarcadores cardíacos: presente y futuro Cardiac biomarkers: present and future
Eduardo Fernández,Carlos García,Rafael de la Espriella,Carmelo R Due?as
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología , 2012,
Abstract: En la actualidad, las enfermedades cardiovasculares se consideran la pandemia más significativa del siglo XXI. Dentro de ellas, la enfermedad coronaria es la más prevalente y la que más morbi-mortalidad genera; en el caso particular de Colombia, es la principal causa de muerte en individuos mayores de 45 a os. La característica silenciosa de esta enfermedad ha impulsado la investigación de moléculas que permitan su diagnóstico precoz y sirvan como predictores pronóstico tanto en la fase crónica como en la aguda. Fruto de estas investigaciones, en los últimos treinta a os se ha producido un avance importante en el desarrollo de biomarcadores cardiacos. Entre ellos están los recién desarrollados ensayos de troponinas ultrasensibles para diagnóstico temprano, la medición de la albúmina modificada por isquemia que cuenta con alto valor predictivo negativo para la detección de isquemia miocárdica, el ligando de CD40 soluble para la clasificación e individualización del tratamiento, la utilidad de la proteína C reactiva como marcador de riesgo de enfermedad coronaria y las diversas técnicas de alto rendimiento como la proteómica, que permite la detección de múltiples biomarcadores potenciales. A pesar de ello, aún no se dispone de evidencia suficiente para sustituir los marcadores que recomiendan las asociaciones científicas por los nuevos marcadores que se han ido desarrollando, y continúa el debate sobre qué combinación utilizar para alcanzar mayor rendimiento diagnóstico, pronostico y terapéutico. A continuación se revisan los avances actuales en biomarcadores cardiacos y su potencial integración a la práctica clínica habitual. En la actualidad, las enfermedades cardiovasculares se consideran la pandemia más significativa del siglo XXI. Dentro de ellas, la enfermedad coronaria es la más prevalente y la que más morbi-mortalidad genera; en el caso particular de Colombia, es la principal causa de muerte en individuos mayores de 45 a os. La característica silenciosa de esta enfermedad ha impulsado la investigación de moléculas que permitan su diagnóstico precoz y sirvan como predictores pronóstico tanto en la fase crónica como en la aguda. Fruto de estas investigaciones, en los últimos treinta a os se ha producido un avance importante en el desarrollo de biomarcadores cardiacos. Entre ellos están los recién desarrollados ensayos de troponinas ultrasensibles para diagnóstico temprano, la medición de la albúmina modificada por isquemia que cuenta con alto valor predictivo negativo para la detección de isquemia miocárdica, el ligando de CD40 soluble para la clasi
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